References from which these applications of entropy production are extracted: Aoki I. 1987. Entropy balance in lake Biwa. Ecol. Model. 37, 235-248. Aoki I. 1995. Entropy production in living systems: from organisms to ecosystems.
Thermochim. Acta 250, 359-370. Aoki I. 2000. Entropy and Exergy principles in living systems. Thermodynamics and
Ecological Modelling, Lewis Publishers, New York, NY, pp. 165-190. Ludovisi A, Poletti A. 2003. Use of thermodynamic indices as ecological indicators of the development state of lake ecosystems. 1. Entropy production indices. Ecol. Model. 159, 203-222.
Entropy flow and entropy production (see Chapter 2) can be quantitatively estimated using physical modelling or calculated from observed energy flow data of biological systems. Here entropy production in lake ecosystems is examined in detail for three ecosystems located in Japan, USA, and Italy.
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