Summary And Future Direction Of Aquatic Toxicology

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The field of aquatic toxicology has grown out of the disciplines of water pollution biology and limnology. Aquatic toxicology studies have been performed for the past 120 years. Studies evolved from simple tests conducted over intervals as short as a few hours to standard acute lethality tests lasting 48 or 96 hours, depending on the species. Acute toxicity tests were followed by the

Table 2.5 Examples of Appropriate Test Species for Use with Dredge Material when Performing Water Column, Solid-Phase Benthic, and Bioaccumulation Effects Testing

Type of Testing and Recommended Species

Crustaceans

Mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia sp.* Neomysis sp.* Holmesimysis sp.* Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes sp. Oysters, Crassostrea virginica* Commercial shrimp, Penaeus sp. Oceanic shrimp, Pandalus sp. Blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Cancer crab, Cancer sp.

Water Column Toxicity Tests Zooplankton

Copepods, Acartia sp.* Larvae of: Mussels, Mytilus edulis* Oysters, Crassostrea virginica*

Ostrea sp.* Sea urchin, Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus Lyetechinus pictus

Bivalves

Mussel, Mytilus sp. Oyster, Crassostrea sp. Sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus Pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides Spot, Leiostomus xamthurus Sanddab, Citharichys stigmaeus Grunion, Leuresthes tenuis Dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus

Fish

Silversides, Menidia sp.*

Shiner perch, Cymatogaster aggregata*

Infaunal Amphipods

Ampelisca sp.* Rhepoxynius sp.* Eohaustorius sp.* Grandiderella japonica Corophium insidiosum

Benthic Solid-Phase Toxicity Tests Crustaceans

Mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia sp. Neomysis sp. Holmesimysis sp. Commercial shrimp, Penaeus sp. Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes sp. Sand shrimp, Crangon sp. Blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Cancer crab, Cancer sp. Ridge-back prawn, Sicyonia ingentis

Burrowing Polychaetes Fish

Neanthes sp.* Arrow gobi, Clevelandia ios

Nereis sp.*

Nephthys sp.*

Glycera sp.*

Arenicola sp.*

Abarenicola sp.*

Mollusks

Yoldia clam, Yoldia limatula sp. Littleneck clam, Protothaca staminea Japanese clam, Tapes japonica

Bioaccumulation Tests

Polychaetes Mollusks

Neanthes sp.* Macoma clam, Macoma sp.

Nereis sp.* Yoldia clam, Yoldia limatula sp.

Table 2.5 Examples of Appropriate Test Species for Use with Dredge Material when Performing Water Column, Solid-Phase Benthic, and Bioaccumulation Effects Testing (Continued)

Type of Testing and Recommended Species

Polychaetes Mollusks

Nephthys sp.* Nucula clam, Nucula sp.

Arenicola sp.* Littleneck clam, Protothaca staminea

Abarenicola sp.* Japanese clam, Tapes japĆ³nica

Quahog clam, Mercenaria mercenaria

Fish Crustaceans

Arrow gobi, Clevelandia ios Ridge-back prawn, Sicyonia ingentis

Topsmelt, Atherinops affinis Shrimp, Peneaus sp.

Note: Information is taken from the EPA-COE Green Book.47 * Recommended species.

development of various short sublethal tests (e.g., behavior or biochemical studies) and tests with prolonged exposures such as partial life-cycle studies and full life-cycle studies. Early studies were performed in the absence of regulatory requirements by individuals with a high degree of scientific curiosity. Today, aquatic toxicology studies are done for research purposes or environmental risk assessments and are required by many regulatory agencies for product registration, labeling, shipping, or waste disposal.

The cost and length of time required to perform full life-cycle tests have encouraged scientists to search for sensitive test species and sensitive life stages. Full life-cycle fish studies have, for the most part, been replaced by embryo-larval studies (partial life-cycle studies).91 A major effort has been expended to identify species that allow full life-cycle studies to be performed in much shorter periods (e.g., 7-day Ceriodaphnia dubia life cycle tests,92 two-dimensional rotifer tests93) or tests that use sensitive species and sensitive life stages. For example, a 7-day fathead minnow embryo-larval growth and survival study is used to evaluate effluents.94 The goal of these tests is to quickly provide accurate estimates of chronic no-effect levels. It is important to remember that these tests estimate chronic results, not duplicate them. The estimated value is often within a factor of 2 to 4 of the chronic value and, depending on the use of these data, may provide adequate accuracy.

During the last decade significant effort has been expended in developing rapid toxicity assays. There has been an increasing need to assess the toxicity of various sample types in minutes to hours instead of days. For example, effluent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures require multiple toxicity tests on successive days. The use of assays (such as the Microtox 95assay) can speed up the TIE process considerably. The use of rapid assays during on-site effluent biomonitoring allows for collection of a more extensive data set during the limited testing time available.

Table 2.6 Adopted and Draft OECD Test Guidelines Harmonized with OPPTS since 1990

Date of Adoption as an Test Guideline Original or as an Updated

No. Guideline Title Version and Draft Date

Table 2.6 Adopted and Draft OECD Test Guidelines Harmonized with OPPTS since 1990

Date of Adoption as an Test Guideline Original or as an Updated

No. Guideline Title Version and Draft Date

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