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Survival MD

Survival MD is a 200 page survival medicine e-book that will teach you how to care for you or your families in medical crisis scenarios. Written by renowned physician, Dr. Radu Scurtu, this e-book is written in simplistic terminology, so that even the most medically inept of people can instantly learn what do in the event of an emergency. This comprehensive guide consists of a 206 pages program full of information that also contains 73 pages with reports on how you can survive in several and different scenarios. More than ten scenarios are simulated so that you can understand what you will be facing against. The e-book also comprises top survival experts reports and provides you with regular updates and newsletters to keep you informed on the latest survival trends and specifics. This is an easy to read and follow guide that will ensure you learn both basics and advanced survival techniques. You will be prepared and ready for any crisis. All tricks are easy to be implemented and quick to do. Most fixes can be done with elements found just about anywhere. There is no need to buy expensive items at a store. Read more...

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Author: Robert Grey and Dr. Radu Scurtu
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The limitations of personal protection and public education

Personal protection measures have long been recommended for the prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. Such measures are typically divided into three categories behavior modification, repellent use, and prompt removal of attached ticks (White, 1993 see also Table 5.1). Lyme disease prevention and educational programs in endemic areas have stressed the use of such personal protective measures (Dennis, 1995 CDC, 2000), and advice regarding personal protection against tick bites has sometimes been the major focus of Lyme disease prevention efforts on the part of public health officials (Williams et al, 1986 Sigal and Curran, 1991). This advice serves to shift responsibility for Table 5.1 Personal protection (from White, 1993) However, reliance on personal protection as the cornerstone of prevention efforts is problematic. While it is likely that strict adherence to personal protection recommendations will reduce an individual's risk of acquiring tick bites, and...

Developing national capacity for disaster preparedness

There was a consensus that nations need to be better prepared for natural disasters, including having better capacity to address health-care needs. This should include funding to support national capacity for this activity. 5. There was consensus that there are some good models for cost-effective disaster preparedness that could be generally applied to virtually all areas. There was a need for dissemination of this information, which is generally available from the WHO PAHO. This includes standards of care, and establishing partnerships between various organizations. There needs to be attention to methods to address the specific needs of women, children, the elderly, the disabled, and other vulnerable groups.

Ontogeny Functional Ecology and Evolution of Bats

Rick a. adams is an Associate Professor of Zoology at the University of Wisconsin, Whitewater. He is Founder and President of the Colorado Bat Society, a nonprofit conservation foundation. His research focuses on postcranial skeletogenesis in bats, the ontogeny of flight and niche space in juvenile bats, temporal spacing at waterholes and roost site affiliations of Colorado bat species, and bat biodiversity in Montserrat and Antigua in the Caribbean as affected by natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions and hurricanes.

Online Chemical Modeling

Meteorology is the main source of uncertainty in UAP and emergency preparedness models 1. Offline integration of Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure models for urban air pollution forecast and emergency preparedness, which is the main issue, for example, in the EC FUMAPEX project.

Mary E Wilson and Lin H Chen

We live in a world of moving parts, fragmented, altered landscapes, and vast networks of connections. Human travel today is unprecedented in volume, reach, and speed (Wilson, 1995a). Spatial mobility for the average person increased more than 1000-fold between 1800 and 2000 (Cliff and Haggett, 2004 see Figure 1.1). Two million people cross international borders each day (WTO, 2006a). Movement of humans may be the result of planned travel - for business, tourism, education or research, missionary or volunteer work, visiting friends or family, or military purposes - but abrupt displacement of populations can also be a consequence of war, natural disasters, economic, political, or environmental events (Myers, 2001). Human activities have led to unprecedented movement or displacement of other species through intent (e.g. trade) or inadvertence (Smolinski etal., 2003). The conveyances of travel, such as ships and airplanes, can become places for transmission of infectious diseases. The...

From the Ecosystem Concept to the Landscape Historical and Scientific Motives

Following this critical condition social discomfort is felt either by the population of the richest countries due to a life style based on profit or by the poor countries contaminated by un-sustainable societal and economic processes. Natural disasters and economic crises seem to result from the same process. In vain ecology has tried to inform and alert decision makers and central governments of the risk of dramatic instability in ecosystems and human societies embedded in a self-organizing complexity.

On Physis and Republican Theory

To provide conceptual clarity, I adopt Deudney's concise definition of a republic as a political order marked by political freedom, popular sovereignty, and limited government. 6 The republican tradition, which was certainly dominant in ancient Greek thought (Aristotle, Plato, Thucydides), was based in part on Aristotle's heralded debate between physis (nature) and nomos (convention) and the mutual influence they exerted upon each other.7 Ultimately, Aristotle held that physis provided the basis for the emergence of nomos, and thus the natural world profoundly influences the derivative world of human constructs, such as political entities.8 Aristotle was therefore the progenitor of structural-materialist thought in political philosophy. Plato concurred, and argued that physis constituted a powerful driver of political transformation. Such logic was particularly evident in his chronicling of various natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, fires) that devastated human societies and left...

The Future of the Concept Noosphere and the Modern Perspective

Vernadsky's ideas act on the contrary to doomsday scenarios since he views our civilization as a form of a new geological force - scientific thought and therefore it cannot destroy itself. However at present, despite its growing industrial power, our civilization is not yet able to reconstruct the biosphere in the desirable way, if the biosphere is near the critical conditions. It is practically impossible to predict the new quasi-stationary state, as any other possible states of the biosphere's equilibrium are not known. The model of coevolution of 'man' and the 'biosphere' as the main principle of global coexistence was suggested by Yu. Svirezhev. The basic idea is to study the dynamics of the biosphere as the entity and its reactions to human impact. In the framework of this research the study of possible ways of the development of human society as a natural component of the biosphere is of special importance. The problem of coexistence of human society and the biosphere, which is...

Future Threats and Management

Chaparral cover, or burned to reduce fuels perceived to be hazardous to more desirable forests or urban environments. Today the expansion of urban development has resulted in large portions of urban communities being juxtaposed with watersheds of potentially dangerous chaparral fuels. Historical studies show that large high-intensity crown fires are a natural part of this ecosystem and there is little reason to believe there will not be more such fires in the future. Fire management has always worked under the philosophy that they can change the vulnerability of communities to wildfires through manipulation of fuels. However, over the past century of such management, every decade has been followed by one of increasing losses to wildfires. Californians need to embrace a different model of how to view fires on these landscapes. Our response needs to be tempered by the realization that these are natural events that cannot be eliminated from the southern California landscape. We can learn...

Stressor Dose Response

Stressor, and (3) that the stressor dose-response relationship is based on the existence of a quantifiable method of measuring and a precise means of expressing the effect of the stressor. When a large quantity of a specific stressor is used for a short time, the corresponding response is normally a complete destruction of the entity. This type of exposure is known as acute. For example, natural disasters like earthquake, tornadoes, hurricanes, volcanic eruption, tsunami, etc., could be considered as acute events because they occur for a very short time and the effect is usually catastrophic. Another example of acute events is fish kill in highly eutrophic waters during very hot summers. On the other hand, if a small quantity of stressor is applied for a very long time, the exposure is referred to as chronic. In chronic exposure, there is no lethality or destruction but a major functional physiology of the entity could be affected. For example, egg shell thinning in birds exposed to...

Read and answer the questions Give a short summary on this text using the following

Flooding by rivers and the sea causes more damage and loss of life than any other form of natural hazard. Flooding by rivers may be due to a seasonal maximum of rainfall, as in the monsoon countries, to runoff from melting snow, or to a single massive storm. Seasonal flooding occurs along the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers in the Indian subcontinent. It used to occur along the lower Colorado River following spring snowmelt. Sudden storms in arid regions may produce flashfloods that rapidly fill formerly dry stream channels and inundate surrounding areas. Flooding often occurs when several factors coincide, such as snowmelt, heavy rains, and high tide at the river mouth. The exceptional flooding in the U.S. Midwest in the summer of 1993 was caused by an unusual period of almost continuous rain.

Studies on Indirect Effects of Nuclear

To grip consequences of the changing military policy away from 'assured destruction', the US Office of Technology Assessment (OTA 1979) had just analyzed a range of scenarios in an influential war risk study, from attacks on cities and oil refineries to one-sided counter-force and countervalue strikes. High-altitude bursts were mentioned as critical but not addressed, though doubts were cast on massive stratospheric ozone depletion. The chemical system was better known then, and high-yield weapons had given way to missiles with multiple warheads of lower yield each. Focusing on direct effects of nuclear attacks, civil defense, economic breakdown, recovery and societal impacts, OTA suggests that extreme uncertainties, and certainty about disastrous 'minimum' consequences, both ''play a role in the deterrent effect of nuclear weapons''.

Rethinking the Unthinkable

Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and at selected nuclear test sites worldwide. These projects mounted a substantial database, improved the knowledge of processes, and identified gaps in understanding the biogeochemical dispersion of radionuclides. All three projects were led by Sir Frederick Warner. Their documented results, SCOPE report nos. 28, 50, and 59, are reference sources for the state of scientific knowledge toward the turn of the twentieth century about the gravest risk and challenge of its second half - the 'doomsday' of man in an all-out nuclear conflict.

Behind and Beyond the Scenarios

The idea of a 'doomsday machine' as an ultima ratio of deterrence is due to Herman Kahn. As a 'terminal' retaliation should deterrence fail, such a hypothetical device was thought to automatically kill the majority of mankind, if not the species of man or all life on Earth. MAD was a sort of 'homicide pact' indeed, settled by the Antiballistic Missile Treaty of 1972 (which allowed one BMD system at either side). Negotiations could give MAD a frame as long as it was accepted as a matter of fact and a relatively stable island was sought within the sea of inherent risks. In a severe crisis, however, a strategic exchange could have been initiated just by technical failure, misinterpretation, false information, or madness. Aimed to balance Soviet conventional forces, the US nuclear guarantee for Western Europe established the principal context of the doctrine of extended deterrence. The ability to control escalation, a prerequisite of this posture, was its dilemma as well. The myth, the...

Regional Conflicts and Their Global Effects

The 'doomsday scenario', executed by retreating Iraqi troops in February 1991 in setting the Kuwaiti oil fields alight, was meant as a modern version of Kahn's ultimate deterrent - an idea that failed. Two climate modeling responses, from the United Kingdom Meteorological Office and the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, denied an attenuating impact on the Indian monsoon (a concern that had been expressed before). Successors of their GCMs did correctly represent the major Asian rainbelts as part of a planetary system, and their seasonal migration, but not the seasonal mean distribution, to say nothing about intraseasonal activity. Just those 30-60-day active-break monsoon cycles, including realistic motions of the major Asian systems, were now found in the Berlin version ('CCAS-B') ofthe CCAS GCM in an own Kuwait oil well fire study. This GCM version is a completely regenerated, flexible tool of dynamic systems analysis. Its boreal summer monsoons turned out indeed to be part of an...

Indirect Effects of Global Relevance

Indirect relationships important on the global or subglobal scale are often separated from their cause spatially and or temporally. For example, the dramatic increase in volcanic activity (possibly caused by the impact of an asteroid) at the end of the Mesozoic era is thought to have led to the extinction of dinosaurs, which arguably stimulated the eventual evolution of mammals (including humans). The increased production and use of fertilizers in the 1950s led to the increased phosphate inputs, eutrophication, and decrease in water quality in many lakes, ponds, and reservoirs during the subsequent decades. The increased consumption of fossil fuels in the twentieth century led to the increased emissions of carbon dioxide, which were eventually followed by global warming and an apparent increase in the frequency of natural disasters. This climate change was probably accelerated by the depletion of the planet's ozone layer due to the CFC (chlorofluorocarbon)-containing deodorants and...

Bioterrorism and the public health response problem areas

There remain a number of potential pitfalls regarding bioterrorism that must be identified and managed to optimize the public health. As discussed above, emergencies involving conventional threats, natural disasters, or even chemical attacks, have immediate consequences assessments of casualties can begin as can containment and mitigation strategies. In bioterrorism, the clinical latency period between exposure to an agent and the manifestation of signs and symptoms is in the order of days to weeks with most of the CDC category A, B, or C agents, other than pre-formed, pathogen-derived toxins. For this reason, early diagnoses of the first cases are likely to prove problematic heightened clinical vigilance is required to recognize presentations of diseases that are rarely seen in clinical practice (Artenstein, 2003). The fear of the unknown, exacerbated by the stealth property of biologic attacks, may result in a panicked society and paralyzed economy.

Measuring Energy Sustainability

Thirty five years ago, the book Limits to Growth had an important impact on how people thought about global society's relationship to the environment (Meadows et al. 1972). The book simulated many doomsday scenarios in which the world's economies either ran out of fundamental resources or polluted the environment so severely that it could no longer sustain human life on a large scale. The fact that none of the doomsday scenarios came to pass is often cited as proof that all such dire predictions will always be wrong. It is certainly true that the computer modeling on which the book was based underappreciated the roles of markets and innovation. However, Limits to Growth contained one very different scenario that is too often overlooked. In that scenario, rapid technological change, together with what may have seemed at the time to be draconian environmental regulation, permitted sustained growth of the global economy and population. Of course, it is precisely that scenario in which we...

The risk of postnatural disaster infectious diseases

The following is a summary of the infectious disease risks associated with natural disasters. It should be emphasized that natural disasters most commonly involve flooding, earthquakes, hurricanes, and tornadoes. A review of the published literature on epidemics associated with such disasters indicates that much of the morbidity and mortality (Salama et al., 2004) is not a direct result of the natural disaster per se, but rather of the crowded conditions and disrupted services that result from the disaster (Wilder-Smith, 2005). Contributing factors to this association are listed in Table 13.2. This shows that most of the associated epidemics are diseases that characterize refugee settings.

War as a Disease Amplifier

Previous works have addressed the idea that infectious disease may manifest in epidemic or pandemic form through processes of amplification through ecological change.1 Despite their analytical shortcomings, Galenic perspectives which specify that chronic poverty and the inequitable distribution of resources function as the principal (if not sole) variable involved in the spread of contagion are currently in vogue.2 Poverty certainly does serve as an amplifier of pathogenic infection, however, it is not alone in this function as other variables, including ecological change, trade, migration, natural disasters,3 and war may also serve as disease amplifiers. This chapter is primarily concerned with the effects of war (both inter-state and intra-state) on the emergence and proliferation of infectious disease. In it I argue that the processes of inter-state war and civil conflict create conditions directly conducive to the emergence, proliferation, and mutation of pathogens among both...

Relevant Websites

Report, Met Office. http earthobservatory.nasa.gov - MODIS Instrument on NASA's Terra Satellite Improves Global Vegetation Mapping, Makes New Observations Possible, NASA News Archive Fires on Borneo and Sumatra Fires in Southern California Nine Years of Ocean Chlorophyll EO Natural Hazards Floods in Central Europe Earthquake Spawns Tsunamis What is El Nino, Fact Sheet, by David Herring La Nina Fact Sheet Black Water off the Gulf Coast of Florida Phytoplankton Blooms in the Black Sea Natural Hazards, NASA Earth Observatory. http cybele.bu.edu - MODIS Leaf Area Index, Climate and Vegetation Research Group, Department of Geography, Boston University. http rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov - MODIS Rapid Response System.

Density Independent versus Density Dependent Mortality

Individual mortality is the result of intrinsic (e.g., senescence and morbidity) or extrinsic factors (e.g., environmental stochasticity and natural disasters). For populations, mortality can be an important regulatory mechanism when deaths resulting from biotic (usually density dependent) or abiotic (usually density independent) factors limit population growth. Density-dependent and density-independent mortality factors were first described by Howard and Fiske in 1911, and were referred to as 'facultative mortality' and 'catastrophic mortality', respectively. A central issue in understanding population dynamics is the attempt to separate and identify the roles of density-dependent and density-independent processes in determining the growth, predictability, and variability of population abundances. However, because observations of death in nature are often difficult to pin down to a single cause, it has been a challenge to isolate their separate effects.

Lessons from refugee situations

A central feature of complex emergencies such as tsunami is large-scale displacement of people (Nieburg et al., 2005). In many cases there is little prior notice for any planning. The international relief community has dealt with these issues for 30 years. The following are some of the lessons that are emphasized by Sphere, which represents over 100 humanitarian organizations that have responded to natural disasters and provided guidance on some of the priorities for the emergency phase of disaster relief.

Lessons from the tsunami

The major objectives of the conference were to review the health-care experience, identify components that could have been done better, and tabulate lessons learned for future natural disasters. The following is a brief summary of the most important conclusions from this conference

Neglected issues in health care

Emphasis was made on efforts to normalize the life of individuals, families and communities in terms of livelihoods, schooling, and housing. Psychological support should not be restricted to medical practitioners, since only a minority of those affected actually requires this level of professional help. It was recommended that the WHO develop guidelines for the use of psychotropic medications in the setting of natural disasters.

Management Options For Industrial Ecology

Most management systems so far developed for estates have omitted options for collective forms of environmental management in their action plans. This is a major deficiency, since collective response to issues of energy and water, chemical safety and emergency preparedness and response, waste re-use and recycling is far more effective than leaving this to individual companies. Environmental services, such as waste exchange, environmental training, information and news, have also been slow to appear. As a consequence, many organizational possibilities of rationalizing materials and energy flows have been overlooked, as have opportunities for addressing other sustainable development issues through some form of cooperative action.

Ecological Resilience

Changes from one set of processes to another are usually triggered either by the action of slowly changing drivers (e.g., climate, agricultural land-use intensification, shifts in human values and policies) that force the system over a threshold, or by relatively discrete shocks to the system (e.g., natural disasters or institutions collapse). Direct and precise measurement of resilience is difficult as it requires to estimate the potential of system drivers and disturbance regimes to move a system across thresholds and boundaries separating alternative domains (Figure 1). As experimental manipulation of a natural system or an SES may be unfeasible because of system dimensions or costs, or impossible as it could lead to irreversible state, or unethical as an undesirable highly resilient domain could be reached, resilience can be addressed by a retrospective description of system evolution once an analysis framework is identified by specifying the set of spatiotemporal scales and types...

Bjorg Palsdottir Susan H Baker and Andr Jacques Neusy

Today, the social ecology of infectious diseases links the fates of peoples and ecosystems around the globe. Because the world has not dealt with a pandemic caused by a highly contagious, rapidly spreading infectious disease since the 1918 influenza epidemic, assessment of today's true organizational response capacity is speculative at best. Hurricane Katrina, which hit the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2005, illustrates that capacity on paper does not always reflect how people and plans perform during emergencies. The potential for a global outbreak of avian flu in the near future makes the topic politically sensitive, and the existing figures and plans moving targets.

Nongovernmental organizations

In some regions of the world where health services are limited, faith-based clinics and hospitals work with local NGOs as the main health providers. During disasters and complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs), these local and international NGOs are usually the front-line emergency responders for refugees and displaced persons in isolated and insecure areas. The CDC defines CHEs as situations affecting large civilian populations which usually involve a combination of factors including war or civil strife, food shortages, and population displacement, resulting in significant excess mortality (Connolly, 2000 Toole et al., 2005). Much like the fragmentation already described on multi-lateral and bi-lateral levels, the services these NGOs provide frequently are not well coordinated either among themselves or with the host government. Particularly during emergencies, NGOs can have diverging priorities and approaches, and adhere to different standards of care. (Toole et al., 2005 Telford et...

Responding to the challenges ahead

Allocate sufficient resources and mandate local planning, exercises, and adherence to clinical and other critical guidelines ensure public understanding of emergency preparedness plans develop clear national incident management structures, policies and roles among primary responders develop communication structures that educate and inform individuals and communities about what to do in an emergency (Weinberg, 2000 HKSAR, 2003 PHAC, 2003 US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005 Medical News Today, 2005 Ballier et al., 2006 Mounier-Jack and Coker, 2006 Tregasis, 2006). Most fall somewhere in between. Meanwhile, they are expected (but not mandated) to develop plans for, among other things, vaccine distribution, vaccination of priority groups, monitoring of adverse events, tracking of vaccine supply and administration, vaccine coverage and effectiveness studies, communications, legal preparedness, and ensure that health-care providers conduct initial screening, assessment, and...

The First Bonobo Release

Although we will design such a safety net to protect the released bonobos, we have reason to predict that they will adapt rapidly to life in the wild. Stoinski et al. (2004) concluded from their systematic comparison of wild and released tamarins, that released captive tamarins have behavioral deficiencies because they were not allowed enough time to adapt to a simulated wild environment instead of years, they only had a few months to gain survival skills before being released. However, as in the case of the HELP Congo chimpanzees who lived on large forested islands before their release, the bonobos at Lola ya Bonobo have been living in large stable social groups within a sizable forest enclosure for years, and thus have much experience foraging for dozens of plants they will also find available in the wild. Therefore, given the success of the chimpanzees from the HELP Congo release project in quickly adapting to life in the wild and the similar pre-release experience our bonobos have...

Specific Provisions

The EPCRA provides for emergency planning and notification and specifies reporting requirements and its relationship to other laws. Emergency Planning and Notification The EPCRA ( 301, 42 USC 11001) requires states to establish a state-level emergency response commission and local emergency planning districts to prepare and implement emergency plans. Each planning district designates a local emergency planning committee comprised of impact groups in the community (EPCRA 301 c , 42 USC 11001 c ).14 Each local committee establishes its own procedures and rules for handling public requests for information. The planning and notification requirements of the EPCRA are triggered by certain extremely hazardous substances. The EPA lists over 350 chemicals which it considers extremely hazardous. The list is published in Appendix A of the Chemical Emergency Preparedness Any release of a regulated substance triggers the statute's emergency notification procedures.16 Generally, any facility must...

Global Ecology Unique Perspectives from Space Based Satellite Sensors Instruments

The reflected return signal or return echo carries information on the structure and composition of the atmosphere and the underlying land surface vegetation, inland water bodies, and the vast expanses of the oceans. Currently, a number of natural hazards are routinely monitored from space. Examples include crops and droughts, dust, smoke and pollution, forest fires, floods, severe storms and hurricanes, and volcanoes. As a novel technology, a new generation of satellites also monitors the Earth's surface and subsurface geological and hydro-logical environments via nonphotonic measurements of the gravity anomaly field. The surface and subsurface hydrological environments can thus be monitored to provide information on the habitats that permit or limit ecosystem.

Urban Hunger Like The Bite Of Crabs

In 2003, 11.2 percent of all US households were food insecure because of lack of economic resources. Since 1999, food insecurity has increased by 2.1 million households nationally, including 1.1 million households with children. Furthermore, the number of families with children requesting emergency food assistance increased by 88 percent (USCM 2003). While it is difficult to determine what percentage of these men, women and children live within US cities, a survey released by the US Conference of Mayors (USCM) in 2003 provides chilling information about the proliferation of urban hunger within US urban areas. The USCM suggest that requests for emergency food assistance increased by 88 percent within the twenty-five cities surveyed between 1997 and 2002. Their report suggests that in 2003 alone, requests increased by an average of 17 percent. So while not having an absolute sense of the severity of urban hunger, the relational proliferation within the US is ominous. Given the...

A practical application of tree biomechanics in ecology

Both eco-engineering and ground bio-engineering fall within the framework of ecological engineering. Ecological engineering has been described as the management of nature 161 or as the proactive design of sustainable ecosystems that integrate human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both 162,163 . Ecological engineering has largely been devoted to the sustainability of wetlands, wastewater, and aquaculture 162 , but can be applied to a larger range of environments. Focusing more on the restoration or protection of sites, the term eco-engineering has recently been defined as the long-term strategy to manage a site with regards to natural or man-made hazards 88 . Eco-engineering is not to be confused with ground bio-engineering. Ground or soil bioengineering methods integrate civil engineering techniques with natural materials to obtain fast, effective, and economic methods of protecting, restoring, and maintaining the environment 164,165 . The use of, for example,...


Survival training is available in many areas and is advised for anyone planning to venture far from settled areas. Instruction ranges from informal one-on-one sessions with a native elder to formal workshops taught by professional survival experts and frontiersmen. The best teachers are, of course, those who have fully experienced Poseidon's outback firsthand, and the local natives are an excellent resource for information regarding what to expect and how to best plan for it. Most survival kits come with the essentials a water purifier, desalination tablets, fire paste (PG 138), basic tools, a knife, survival plastic (PG 140), a locator beacon, and a standard medkit (PG 133). Other items worth consideration depending on weight, availability, price, and capacity restrictions include spare power cells, extra medical supplies, a map box (PG 138), survival grenades, a survival guide, pest spikes (FM 38), rescue dye, a tube or two of chew goo, and emergency bottles. Many frontiersmen...

Climax theory

Vade or a different species replaces it. A climax may be temporarily disrupted by natural disasters such as hurricanes or volcanic activity. If there are changes in the environment (for example, changes in temperature, weather patterns, or drainage) or in the local species pool (e.g. if exotic species invade), a different climax community will evolve. Succession to a climax may also be arrested and held at any stage by human intervention for example, heathlands and many grasslands result from and are maintained by grazing, which prevents the growth of trees and shrubs. Such an equilibrium is called a subclimax, plagioclimax, or biotic climax.


Here we apply the FAO definition which is used in most assessments and inventories deforestation includes areas of forest converted to agriculture, natural nonforests such as shrubs and savannas due to anthropogenic impacts or natural disasters, nonvegetative land (e.g., water reservoirs and urban territories), etc. The term does not include areas where the trees have been removed as a result of forest management activities (e.g., logging) or due to natural disturbances (fire, insects), and where forest is expected to regenerate in a natural way or by silviculture activities. Deforestation also includes areas where some permanently impacted drivers (e.g., disturbance, overutilization, pollution, or other changing environmental conditions) do not allow for maintaining the tree cover above the 10 threshold during a long period of time.

Final Remarks

Ofa disturbing question Was there a potential to substantially influence public and strategic thinking by timely, deliberate inquiry A 'doomsday potential' was inherent to nuclear deterrence since the 1960s, at the latest, and it may be questioned that the 'policy war' between MAD and NUT was predicated to end at the terms of the war-fighting strategists. Game theory was abused to justify NUT, risky nuclear weapons tests were conducted, and the Cuban missile crisis made humankind totter at the brink ofits ultimate catastrophe. Though lately a result of the arms race, MAD was a vulnerable and immoral posture. Remarkable activities of the 1960s notwithstanding, though, did nuclear deterrence and nuclear war become great themes for the general scientific community only during the 1980s. A largely unmonitored evolution toward 'wars of the twenty-first century' is likewise a risky habit. It has 'tradition' in military politics to occupy gray zones ofknowledge, and in scientific...

AN2 hN2 r78b

Even though the fish population and the total catch both decline). In addition, it takes longer and longer for the fish population to recover from other sources of mortality, such as predation by other fish species or natural disasters. The fish population heads towards extinction unless one or more fishers go out of business. The same reasoning applies to the introduction of new technology that allows a single person to exploit a greater proportion of the fish population, thus increasing h as well as N2. Hardin (1968) makes similar arguments for the introduction of pollutants into the common resource, which has the net effect of decreasing r and K by increasing the death rate or decreasing the birth rate of fish. So long as there is no cost to the polluter of dumping toxins into the commons but there is a cost of otherwise disposing of them or retaining them, the rational short-term decision that increases an individual's wealth also decreases the ability of the common resource to...

Global Debate

With regard to the economy, however, the claim of limits to growth immediately triggered a fierce debate. Robert Solow, also an economist at MIT (and Nobel Prize winner in 1987), wrote ''I would like to state, briefly and bluntly, why I think the various 'doomsday models' are worthless as science and as guide to public policy'' (Solow, 1972 3832). His main point was that that the price mechanism would enable humankind to avoid overshoot in the face of limited resources by triggering substitution and innovation. During the following decades, economists developed models representing these mechanisms. A key claim of this kind of literature is that resource scarcity is not a big problem because it is precisely what markets can deal with, and that pollution increases with economic growth only in the early stages of economic growth. Once people get more affluent, they are supposed to be able and willing to abate pollution by technological means.

John G Bartlett

Natural disasters include earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods. Some authorities also use the term complex emergencies, which also includes emergencies that impact large populations through war, civil strife, famine, and other events leading to large population displacements with common humanitarian crises (Toole and Waldman, 1997 Connolly et al., 2004). These are characterized by mass population movement with resettlement and crowding, often with limited infection control bringing risk of epidemics (see also Chapter 11). Some of the characteristic features of natural disasters are summarized in Table 13.1 (Sphere Health Services, 2007). This chapter will deal with the infectious disease consequences of natural disasters, using the tsunami of 26 December 2004 as a prototype.


There is substantial risk of epidemics of measles in camps (Toole et al., 1989 Toole, 1995 Connolly et al., 2004 Wilder-Smith, 2005). The mortality rate in stable populations is about 1 percent, but may be as high as 33 percent in natural disasters (Toole, 1995). Transmission of the virus is promoted by crowding combined with poor national rates for vaccination. For the refugee camp in Sudan in 1985, this infection accounted for 53 percent of deaths (Connolly et al., 2004). These rates decreased with subsequent disasters as a result of increased awareness and expanded immunization plans (Toole et al., 1989 Toole, 1995). Nevertheless, there are many countries that still are far behind in national measles vaccination coverage. With natural disaster in such areas, immunization for measles should receive a high priority - in fact, this is probably second only in importance to the provision of adequate food (Toole et al., 1989). Children aged six months to five years should be immunized on...

Community response

Natural disasters are often associated with a sudden increase in the number of strangers in the community, including volunteers, representatives of the press, etc. There are also epidemics of rumors, and of course there is the confrontation with death and dying among families and friends. The community response is quite variable. Often there is anger that is usually directed toward accountability and the search for someone who is responsible, and also anger about inequities in the distribution of resources. It is important for psychiatrists to work with governmental agencies in developing a disaster psychiatric response plan. Some of the observations that should be included are as follows


The process of a soft release falls into three stages (1) pre-release training and conditioning (2) the release process and (3) post-release support. Birds intended for release have to be correctly socialized, with due care taken to ensure that the stimuli during the early learning stages are appropriate. For most releases, parent reared, or foster raised birds are to be desired because they will have experienced normal imprinting and socialization. If hand-raised birds are being used, it is important that they are raised with siblings to ensure socialization with con-specifics or, if they are being raised alone, that they are fed with the aid of a puppet that mimics the adult so that the young birds imprint upon an appropriate image (Wallace 2000). Puppet rearing has been used with Californian Condors, and Takahe Porphyrio mantelli. For cranes, the rearer wears a full body crane suit. Attention also needs to be given to early learning of nest-site characteristics, and all individuals...


Likely to have the necessary survival skills, but are also more likely to leave the release area and return to their site of origin. An early successful translocation was of 3100 Snowy Egrets that were moved from Louisiana to Florida in the United States in 1909. They were held captive for several months and then released. These birds helped to re-establish the species in Florida (McIlhenny 1934).

The Mammals

Asteroids have a relatively high iridium concentration. The iridium layer has been identified in more than 100 places. Almost simultaneously, a giant volcanic eruption took place, and it has probably contributed significantly to the mass extinction, particularly if we assume that major and long-term climatic changes were a direct consequence of the volcanic eruption. The impact produced enormous amounts of sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere that acted as nucleation for acid rain. Rain with pH about 0 was probably produced. The direct effect is sufficient to suffocate many air breathers and destroy plant foliage and dissolved the shells of many marine organisms. The North American continent was absolutely devastated and the global catastrophe among land plants and surface plankton affected drastically all normal food chains. Small animals, for instance lizards and the mammals, burrowed and hibernated. They could still find nuts, seeds, insects and larvae. The catastrophe was...

Example Structures

The drivers for environmentally improved construction engineering and management are becoming stronger. For example, the 1995 US Federal Procurement Guidelines (USEPA 1995b) require contractors to use sustainable practices if they wish to sell products and services to the government. Federal contractors must comply with the US Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act's (EPCRA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI 1995) reporting requirement (USEPA 1995a), which forces them to account for some of their toxic chemical emissions. (Non-compliance with the EPCRA provisions can lead to contract termination.) Section 613 of the 1990 US Clean Air Act requires each federal department and agency to maximize the substitution of safe alternatives for ozone-depleting substances, and certify to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) that procurement regulations have been modified appropriately accessed 15 July 1999). Recycling was included in the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation...

Corporate Image

Mitigating SHE risks is not only socially responsible behavior it is good business. First, owing to the public concern surrounding environmental issues, promoting environmental care can enhance a company's and an industry's image. The key driver from a business perspective is the avoidance of major accidents, which can have huge consequences for a company (see Klassen and McLaughlin 1996 for empirical estimates), as shown by the Union Carbide accident in Bhopal, India in 1984. As a result of this accident, Union Carbide itself lost its ability to operate as a company.

Federal Programs

The federal government exerts a broad influence via its many agencies. For example, in the Corps of Engineers' major structural flood control program, the federal agency consults with local agencies, but maintains field offices and staff for planning, construction, operation, and maintenance. In another approach, the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) has a nationwide network of conservation districts. The districts perform some functions autonomously, while other functions are carried out by the federal staff. In flood-plain management, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has established fairly complete federal control, although actions affecting individuals are legally mandated by state laws and local ordinances. In this case, the financial incentives of the flood insurance program are the prime motivation for obtaining required state legislation and local ordinances.


Dengue diseases, including DF, DHF and DSS have remained important mosquito-borne diseases of Thailand since the late 1950s with high annual incidence but relative low mortality. All of the four dengue serotypes circulate continuously in Thailand with fluctuations in dominant serotypes from year to year and from place to place. Both species of DHF vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are found throughout Thailand. The current vector control programs for DHF in Thailand consist of provision of health education to raise public awareness, massive campaigns for larval control, environmental measures for source reduction, larval control, adult control and personal protection measure. Satisfactory control has been achieved in some areas, depending on the strength of local health authorities and community participation. However, the programs have confronted some obstacles, such as difficulties to mobilize community participation in larval control measures, inadequate supply of larvicides,...

State Programs

The Pollution Prevention Act contains new tracking and reporting provisions. These provisions require companies to file a toxic chemical source reduction and resource recycling report file for each used chemical listed under SARA 313 for TRI reporting under the Federal Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). These reports, which do not replace SARA Form R, cover information for each reporting year including

Predators Of Weasels

In addition, weasels suffer from more natural hazards, including intense persecution from larger predators. Weasels of all species are small enough to be regarded as, or confused with, the normal prey of foxes, coyotes, feral cats, minks and ferrets, plus owls and hawks (Hellstedt & Kallio 2005). Weasels are believed to have somewhat distasteful flesh, so these predators do not necessarily eat a weasel once they have killed it, but that is hardly a comfort. The question is, do these encounters happen often enough to affect the weasel populations

How To Survive The End Of The World

How To Survive The End Of The World

Preparing for Armageddon, Natural Disasters, Nuclear Strikes, the Zombie Apocalypse, and Every Other Threat to Human Life on Earth. Most of us have thought about how we would handle various types of scenarios that could signal the end of the world. There are plenty of movies on the subject, psychological papers, and even survivalists that are part of reality TV shows. Perhaps you have had dreams about being one of the few left and what you would do in order to survive.

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