Learn How To Survive Energy Crisis
Technological optimists argue that human systems are fundamentally different from other natural systems because of human intelligence and that history has shown that resource constraints can be circumvented by new ideas. Technological optimists claim that Malthus' dire predictions about population pressures have not come to pass and the 'energy crisis' of the late 1970s is behind us. Technological skeptics, on the other hand, argue that many natural systems also have 'intelligence' in that they can evolve new behaviors and organisms (including humans themselves). Humans are therefore a part of nature, not apart from it. Just because we have circumvented local and artificial resource constraints in the past does not mean we can circumvent the fundamental ones that we will eventually face. Malthus' predictions have not come to pass yet for the entire world, the skeptics would argue, but many parts of the world are in a Malthusian trap now, and other parts may well fall into it. This is...
Concern with global warming, energy security, and pollution strongly implies that fossil energy is too cheap to compensate for its drawbacks. Energy taxes of various sorts have been proposed to stimulate more efficient use and to fund alternatives. In the debate, equity issues quickly surface. Because direct energy is a larger fraction of the total for less affluent households, regressive impacts
Table 20.2 compares trends in the ratio of government energy R&D expenditure and GDP in the G7 nations after the first energy crisis. Looking at the table we note that Japan, unlike other advanced countries, maintained a higher level of government energy R&D expenditure even after the downward movement in international oil prices (starting from 1983).
However, contraction of farm chemical markets began following the energy crisis of the 1970s, the US farm crisis of the mid-1980s, and the concurrent economic recession. By the 1980s, there were fewer acres in crops, pesticides had reached saturation in most markets, and demand for farm chemicals began to drop, remaining low throughout the 1990s (United States Department of Commerce 1985 Eveleth 1990 British Medical Association 1992). Continued depression in commodity prices meant a continued reduction in the market for and drop in the price of agricultural chemicals (Reich 2000).
Twenty years ago, no evidence existed to suggest that dilute wastewater could be treated anaerobically at an ambient temperature. Prodded by the 1973 energy crisis, Jewell (1981) and co-workers converted a fluidized-bed reactor for anaerobic methane fermentation and studied municipal sewage treatment (Jewell, Switzenbaum, and Morris 1979).
Placed within a challenging and constrained site, the design preserves the cultural landscape represented by an existing nineteenth-century summer home, respectfully and adaptively reusing the original house and adding contemporary office, laboratory, and common spaces. The all-electric building relies on renewable energy sources, including a grid-connected and net-metered 26.4-kilowatt photovoltaic array that powers the building's closed-loop, ground-source heat-pump system. A planned on-site wind turbine will likely make the building a net-energy exporter. Icynene spray foam insulates all exterior walls and roof assemblies, creating a technically and ecologically effective air barrier and optimized R-values. Other components reinforce the performance benefits of this extremely secure envelope, including offset-stud framing double- and triple-glazed argon-insulated low-E windows enthalpy wheels that recapture heat and moisture from exhaust air and precondition incoming fresh air and...
188.8.131.52 The energy crisis hypothesis At present, there is little direct evidence supporting the energy-crisis hypothesis in insects. 184.108.40.206 The resource crunch hypothesis A number of physiological changes are needed to make flight-or-fight possible (Orchard et al., 1993 Charmandari et al., 2005). The resource crunch hypothesis suggests that some of these changes will result in a shift in resources away from the immune system, in order to optimize the flight-or-fight response. This hypothesis differs from the energy crisis hypothesis because it is not energy per se that is limiting, but specific molecules that are required for both immunity and some other physiological function.
For more than half the world's population, wood is the chief fuel used for cooking, heating, and light industry. In the poorest countries, wood is burned much faster than it can be grown, so forests are turned into shrublands and then into deserts. The shortage of firewood has been referred to as the 'other energy crisis', as oil is the energy crisis most talked about. For the African countires of Tanzania and Gambia the consumption of wood fuel per capita is about 1.5 tyr and 99 of the population uses wood as fuel. In North America and other regions with large standing stocks of vegetation, more people have become interested in using biomass, both from forest and agricultural lands, as fuel to supplement or replace dwindling supplies of petroleum, which is a nonrenewable resource.
One main aim of an underground house is to save energy, and it is symptomatic that the sudden rise in popularity came after the energy crisis of the early seventies, only to fall again once oil prices began to fall.Temperatures at a certain depth underground are stable over the year they are warmer in winter and less cold in
What might have triggered this explosion of studies Several authors have proposed that the Clean Water Act, which was passed in 1972, may have been an important influence (Knight, 1995 Reed et al., 1995). The most significant aspect of this legislation may have been the shifting emphasis in research funding towards alternative treatment technologies. However, the general intention of the Act was to reduce pollutant loads to natural systems, not to increase them as occurs when treating wastewater with wetlands. It seems unlikely, moreover, that either an act of legislation or even increased research funding were the actual triggers to the explosion of studies, because these are not strong motivators of scientific advancement. In fact, there must have been a kind of sociopolitical resistance against putting wastewater into natural wetlands from several sources in the early 1970s. First, the environmental movement was growing, and environmentalists sought to preserve wilderness and to...
Options for sustainable growth can be characterized in terms of the following variables carbon emissions (C), energy efficiency (E Y) and decarbonization or fuel switching (C E). Table 20.1 compares the development paths of Japan, the USA, Western Europe, the former USSR and Eastern Europe, and LDCs for the 10 years following the second energy crisis in 1979 (1979-88). From the table we note that Japan recorded the highest average economic growth in that decade, 3.97 per cent per annum. Such growth was possible as a result of annual energy efficiency improvement of 3.44 per cent, a 0.59 per cent rise in fuel switching and a 0.06 per cent decline in CO2 emissions. The less developed countries (LDCs) followed Japan in terms of GDP growth with an average annual growth rate of 3.53 per cent. During the 10-year period, fuel switching had a positive effect as it rose by 0.16 per cent. However, energy efficiency fell by 0.85 per cent per annum, leading to a 4.22 per cent annual increase in...
In all matters of waste disposal the question must be asked to what extent can wastes be put to good use Waste not, want not. Some materials can be economically recycled. Spoil, rubble and rubbish can sometimes be used to raise land levels for reclamation. Sewage contains valuable fertilizers. Waste heat is an anomaly in an age facing an energy crisis. The term 'waste' is inaptly applied to anything for which some other useful application could be found.
Living Off The Grid
Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Living Off The Grid. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To When Living Within The Grid Is Not Making Sense Anymore.