Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency
Process designers should always consider energy conservation including Reducing the energy requirement for pumping by using larger diameter pipes or cutting down frictional losses Reducing the energy use in buildings through more efficient heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting systems Saving energy by using more efficient equipment. Both electric motors and refrigeration systems can be improved through modernization and optimized control technology. for pumps and fans to reduce energy consumption Reducing energy use through proper maintenance and sizing of motors
Energy Star defines energy efficiency standards for a variety of products and services and qualifies specific products that meet those standards. The EPEAT system helps buyers evaluate, compare, and select desktop computers, laptops, and monitors based on their environmental attributes. All EPEAT-registered products are automatically Energy Star qualified. You can find more information by visiting these Web sites Energy Star Consumers can use the Energy Star standards to shop for products and services that meet those standards. See www.energy star.gov. For instance, computers bearing the Energy Star logo must, at a minimum, offer three distinct operating modes Standby, Active, and Sleep to ensure energy savings when computers are being used, as well as when they're in Standby or Sleep mode. Energy Star-approved computers must also use more efficient internal power supplies. Is energy efficient Initially, computers and monitors (the worst offenders) were the first products to wear the...
The EPA's Energy Star Computers Program is a voluntary, market-based partnership with computer manufacturers to promote energy-efficient personal computers in an effort to reduce the air pollution caused by the generation of electricity. Office equipment is the fastest growing electrical load in the commercial sector. Computer systems alone account for approximately 5 of the commercial electricity consumption a figure which could reach 10 by the year 2000. Dramatic, cost-effective, efficiency improvements are available for both hardware power consumption and the control of operation hours, offering up to 90 energy savings for many computer applications. To date eight computer manufacturers Apple, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Digital, Compaq, NCR, Smith Corona, and Zenith Data Systems have signed partnership agreements with the EPA to participate in the program. By the year 2000, the EPA's Energy Star Computers Program and other campaigns to promote energy-efficient computer equipment will...
Applying basic energy savings at home Looking around your house for energy savings Intensifying your power savings on TVs and entertainment gear I begin with a few reminders on green living practices, such as remembering to turn off the lights when you leave the room, and then describe the most common energy-saving opportunities on the consumer electronics in your house. From there, I point out built-in energy-saving features that you might not know about, and then tell you which common settings to look for and how to adjust them. This chapter focuses on energy savings for all gadgets and electronic devices in your house, except for your Mac and Windows computers both of which receive full treatment in Part III.
Saving money with energy conservation Minimizing Windows energy use on-the-fly Adjusting the Windows automatic Power Options settings Making additional adjustments to the Windows Power Options Automatically Choosing one of the Windows preconfigured energy-saving settings known as Windows Vista power plans, or Windows XP power schemes tells the computer to make certain energy-saving changes and to take action based on general usage scenarios. Customized Modifying an existing power plan or creating a new one tailored to your specific needs gives you greater control over when and how Windows activates individual energy-saving modes. According to the government-backed program Energy Star, you can shave as much as 875 annually from your electric bill by choosing the right Windows energy-saving settings. This list gives you a quick rundown of the key Windows power options it describes what they do and how much they can save you
In April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located near Pripyat in Ukraine exploded. This accident was the most severe in the history of nuclear power industry, resulting in a huge release of radionuclides over large areas of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation and changing the lives of more than 4 million people living in those areas. The lighter radioactive particles and mixture of gases released by the plant were carried to all countries in the Northern Hemisphere, deposited on the ground and on surface waters. For the purpose of this article, the environmental consequences at the time of the disaster and those still continuing today are described here. The radiation-induced acute effects on plants and animals were observed in the highly contaminated areas. No radiation-induced acute effects in plants and animals have been reported outside the 'exclusion zone'. After the disaster, 4 km2 of pine forest in the immediate vicinity of the nuclear plant turned ginger brown...
Energy consumption in the manufacture of fired clay products is very high and thereby also energy related pollution above all, emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide where firing is based on fossil fuels. As noted, the consumption of energy in the kilns depends on the type of kiln, the roller kiln being the most effective. Perforated and hollow products also require relatively less energy, as do products where biomass is added. However, there is probably most to gain by using products fired at lower temperatures. Many bricklayers will remember the routine of using low and medium-fired bricks as the internal leaf in cavity walls and well-fired bricks on the outside. Only vitrified and well-fired bricks are commonly available on the market today unfortunately. Since the use of energy increases by about 0.2 MJ kg for every 100 C increase in the firing temperature, the brick industry could reduce its total energy consumption substantially by returning to differentiated firing....
In simple terms, a product must adhere to strict energy-efficiency guidelines established by the EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy. Check out the following link to find out more about those guidelines Two examples of criteria that computers and monitors must meet to qualify for Energy Star certification include
Aiming to get you aboard the go green express, the Change the World, Start with Energy Star campaign encourages you to take small steps to reduce your energy consumption. You can find the campaign's Web site at Some of the small steps you can pledge to take include entering the number of lights in your home you'll replace with Energy Star qualified lights, promising to activate your computer's Sleep mode, and committing to setting or programming your thermostat to use less or no energy when you're away from home or sleeping.
Energy Star is a two-partner program made up of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Its aim is to help folks buy and use energy-efficient appliances and electronics products Energy Star-supported products help consumers lessen their negative impact on the environment. Manufacturers voluntarily participate in the Energy Star labeling program, introduced by the EPA in 1992. The program was originally designed to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions by making it easy for buyers to identify and recognize more energy-efficient computers and monitors. You can now find the Energy Star label on more than 60 product categories, including TVs, DVD players, refrigerators, fax machines, light fixtures, windows, cordless phones, even commercial fryers and ice machines. According to the EPA, buying and using products and appliances that bear the Energy Star logo helps save as much as 30 percent on a typical household energy bill of 2,000 per year....
How can we analyse the roles of consumers, their motivations and effectiveness relating to sustainable consumption What does sustainable consumption represent for consumers, in particular from the standpoint of ecology and fair trade, and which are the changes taking shape that can give form to more effective policies in these areas These are some of the important questions addressed in this work. The contributors examine a range of interesting and relevant case studies including household energy consumption the promotion of green products Fair Trade Oxfam Worldshops and Southern producers.
Hallberg is a Research Fellow in Environmental Microbiology at Bangor University, UK. His research focuses on the microbial ecology of extremophilic microorganisms, particularly the environmentally and industrially useful acidophiles. He has acted as consultant for international mining companies as well as governmental regulatory agencies including the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Physisorption occurs thanks to van der Waals interactions these are attractive forces due to weak electrostatic interactions occurring between molecules. If the adsorbate molecules hit the surface with low energy, this can be dissipated as heat by vibration of the lattice of solid hence, they can be trapped on the surface. If the molecules hit the surface with too much energy, this cannot be dissipated by the adsorbent, and they bounce away.
Industrial ecology is ecological in at least two senses. As argued in the seminal publication by Frosch and Gallopoulos (1989) that did much to coalesce this field, industrial ecology looks to non-human 'natural' ecosystems as models for industrial activity.1 This is what some researchers have dubbed the 'biological analogy' (Wernick and Ausubel 1997 Allenby and Cooper 1994). Many biological ecosystems are especially effective at recycling resources and thus are held out as exemplars for efficient cycling of materials and energy in industry. The most conspicuous example of industrial re-use and recycling is an increasingly famous industrial district in Kalundborg, Denmark (Ehrenfeld and Gertler 1997 Chapter 27). The district contains a cluster of industrial facilities including an oil refinery, a power plant, a pharmaceutical fermentation plant and a wallboard factory. These facilities exchange by-products and what would otherwise be called wastes. The network of
As the tide rises, a tidal current moves northward up the Hudson. The time taken for the propagation of this current results in a significant delay between the time of high tide at the Verrazano Narrows and points upstream. High tide at West Point is a full three hours later than at the Narrows. The propagation is so drawn out that it can be high tide at one part of the length of the Hudson while being dead low at another. This makes for complex flow patterns. Flow is further complicated by the changing width and depth. As the width decreases a greater volume of water is forced through a narrower channel, which increases the flow velocity. Thus water flow through the narrow throat adjacent to the Hudson Highlands is far greater than in the broad width of Haverstraw Bay in the vicinity of Indian Point Power Plant.
Figure 3.1 The energy costs of flight within species, as expressed by the U-shaped power curve, resulting from the relationship between the power needed to keep aloft and the power needed for forward thrust at different flight speeds. The power needed to keep aloft declines with rising flight speed (as aerodynamic lift takes over), while the power needed to overcome drag increases. At very slow or very fast speeds, the energy required for flight is greater than at intermediate speeds. Only where the combined power curve is less than the bird's maximum possible power output can flapping flight occur. For species that can hover, the minimal flight speed is zero. Using standard aerodynamic models, theoretical relationships between power requirement and flight speed have been calculated for birds over a wide range of body weights. The power (P) required for flight at maximum range speed increases with body weight (W) roughly according to the proportion P W117 (Pennycuick 1975). However,...
In their migratory flights, birds are often found to perform better than predicted by simple aerodynamic models. This is mainly because birds have various ways of reducing the costs of flight. The bodies of birds are much more flexible than those of airplanes, around which aerodynamic theory was developed. Birds can also change the shape of their wings and tail, altering their body outline and lift-to-drag ratio to suit the circumstances and some can also switch between powered flapping flight and still-wing gliding. In addition, many small birds do not flap continuously during migration but adopt a slightly undulating flight, rising while flapping, and dipping on closed or half-closed wings to reduce the drag. Combined with residual lift, bounding flight gives greater distance for a given fuel cost, and allows many small birds to fly faster than they otherwise could (Bruderer & Boldt 2001). It is also physiologically advantageous, as it gives brief rest times between bouts of...
In this way, soaring landbirds often take long roundabout routes between breeding and wintering areas in order to make as much of the journey as possible over land, and minimise the distance travelled by expensive flapping flight. Despite the greater distances, their total energy consumption is thereby greatly reduced. Like birds that migrate by flapping flight, soaring species can reduce energy costs by various means. In particular, hawks can adjust their wing and tail shapes to provide more or less surface area. This allows them to exploit a wider range of air speeds and glide ratios than would be possible if these features were constant, and reduce the drag during glides (Kerlinger 1989). Holding the wings in the level outstretched position would normally consume some energy, but some soaring species have anatomical adaptations that allow them to 'lock' their wings in place, freeing them from using muscles for this purpose, and thereby saving fuel. In albatrosses and others, a...
Nobel Prize-winning chemist Wilhelm Ostwald argued that minimizing the loss of free energy is the objective of every cultural development. Thus one may deduce that the more efficient the transformation from crude energy into useful energy, the greater a society's progress (Ostwald 1909). For Ostwald the increase of energy conversion efficiency has the characteristics of a natural law affecting every living organism and every society. He stressed that each society has to be aware of the 'energetic imperative Energetische Imperativ ' 'Don't waste energy, use it' (Ostwald 1912, p.85). Ostwald was one of the few scientists of his time who was sensitive to the limitations of fossil resources. According to him, a durable (sustainable) economy must use solar energy exclusively. This work provided Max Weber (1909) with the opportunity for an extensive discussion. Weber reacted in quite a contradictory manner. On the one hand he dismissed Ostwald's approach as 'grotesque' (Weber 1909, p.401)...
Naturally, pollution from the building industry depends on the amount of resources used. Reductions are therefore a primary strategy - see Actions for resource conservation in the production of materials on page 6, Chapter 1 and Reduction of energy consumption in the building
Weather has obvious effects on bird migration. It influences the times when birds can travel, the energy costs and risks of the journey, and the visibility of any celestial or ground-based cues that birds might use for navigation. This chapter is concerned with how birds behave in different weather conditions, with the altitudes at which they fly, with day-night patterns of migration, and with the influence of social factors, such as the sizes and formations of flocks. In all these aspects of migration, the interest is in seeing how birds of different kinds adjust their behaviour to prevailing conditions so as to minimise the costs and risks of long-distance travel.
In 1974, Howard Odum related the story of a project, the Crystal River Power Plant in central Florida, where he was hired to analyze environmental impacts. The challenge was to look at the comparative environmental costs of the thermal effluent, which was directly fed into an estuary, and compare the costs with an alternative approach, which incorporated cooling towers to disperse the waste heat. The Crystal River Power Plant needed a considerable number of cooling towers. These evaporative towers, constructed of wood, lowered the temperature of the thermal effluent through evaporative cooling and therefore reduced the thermal stress to the Crystal River a crystal-clear, natural treasure. The environmentalists were convinced that the heat would degrade the estuary, and they strongly preferred treatment of the thermal effluent prior to it being introduced into the river. power plants and utilities Political, Legal, Economic
Sustainable design creates solutions that solve the economic, social, and environmental challenges of the project simultaneously, and these solutions are powered by sustainable energies. The combined beauty and function of the design make it something that endures and is cherished endurance and beauty are central to sustainable thinking. The underlying quest is that if the get-to place is sustainability, it is way past a discussion on energy efficiency.
In contrast to GPP, NPP is easier to assess, largely by measuring the production of new autotrophic biomass, or through gas-exchange measurements of canopy stands. NPP is GPP minus respiratory loss. The great utility of NPP to ecologists is that it reflects the amount of biomass potentially available for consumption by heterotrophs, and thus is a measure of energy and biomass available to support foodweb and ecosystem processes. High levels of NPP enhance ecosystem complexity by increasing the resource availability for trophic interactions. Because of the energy costs needed for growth and maintenance of an organism, there is typically a large (75-99 ) reduction of energy content in each successive trophic level in an ecosystem. A rough approximation is that successive trophic levels differ in energy by order of magnitude. In large and highly productive ecosystems, sufficient energy may flow from primary producers to support primary consumers (herbivores and detritovores) with two or...
When I had been a student, I have read with pleasure F. Wald's small book under the title The Queen of the World and her Shadow . Energy and entropy were kept in mind. Now, when I understand these concepts deeper, I think that their positions should be interchanged. In the giant factory of natural processes the entropy law is a director who controls and manages all the business, while the energy conservation law is only an accountant who is keeping a balance between debit and credit.
The modern petrochemical industry is the best current example of systems integration it begins with a relatively heterogeneous raw material (petroleum), which consists of a mixture of literally thousands of different hydrocarbons. The first petroleum refiners of the 19th century produced only kerosine ('illuminating oil') for lighting and tar for road surfaces and roofing materials. The lightest fractions were lost or flared even natural gasoline had few uses (except as a solvent for paint) until the liquid-fueled internal combustion engine appeared on the scene in the 1890s. By the second decade of the 20th century the market for petroleum products had become mainly a market for automotive fuels after 1920 this market expanded so rapidly as to create a need for 'cracking' heavier fractions and, later, recombining lighter fractions (by alkylation) to produce more and more gasoline. Heavier oils found uses in diesel engines, as lubricants, as fuel for heating homes and buildings, and...
Figure 3.8.10 shows the recovery of acetone from an aqueous waste stream by distillation. As the fractional recovery of acetone increases when the reflux ratio is fixed, the cost of column and auxiliary equipment increases. Alternately, fixing the number of plates in the column eliminates additional column cost, and increasing recovery by increasing the reflux ratio increases the energy consumption for separation.
In the CPI, separation processes account for a large part of the investment and a significant portion of the total energy consumption. The dominant separation process in the chemical industry (for liquids) is distillation. In terms of cleaner engineering, a goal is to find methods that provide a sharper separation than distillation, thus reducing the amount of contaminated product streams (i.e., waste), improving the use of raw materials, and yielding better energy economy. For this purpose, this section discusses some unconventional techniques that offer the potential for high separation efficiency and selectively.
The most influential - and possibly the only - prototype for such a system was, and still is, the Danish town of Kalundborg. In this town waste heat from a power plant and a petroleum refinery has been used to heat greenhouses and other wastes from several large industries have been successfully converted into useful products such as fertilizer for farmers, building materials, and so on. The Kalundborg example is discussed in full in Chapter 33.
Our next major question is, how can we characterize the sediment as a habitat for biota Marine sediments range from coarse gravels in areas subjected to much wave and current action, to muds typical of low-energy estuarine areas and to fine silts and clays in deep-sea sediments. The settling velocity of those particles and the ability of any particle to be re-suspended, moved, and redeposited depends on the prevailing hydrographic regime (e.g. see Open University 2002). The latter will in turn influence the transport of a species' dispersal stages, especially larvae which will then be allowed to settle following metamorphosis under the appropriate hydrographic conditions (defined as hydrographic concentration). Hence the presence of fine sediments will indicate the depositing accreting areas which may also be suitable for passively settling organisms. Clearly the particle size is of major importance in characterizing sediments, although sediments can also be categorized by their...
When it comes to your gadgets, the single most important issue to consider isn't how much or how little energy they use or waste, but rather how much you do. A gadget, whether it's the latest and most energy efficient or it's many years old and inefficient, uses energy only when you use it and, as I say in Chapter 1, even when you don't use it. Most gadgets, new and old alike, continue to draw power when they're turned off but remain in Standby mode. Turning off your TV, for instance, cuts most, but not all, of the power it draws as it stands by, ready to display the picture when you turn it on more quickly than if you had unplugged the power cord to completely cut its power draw. I refer to TVs and gadgets in Standby mode as energy vampires. Even a fully recharged mobile phone that you power off but leave plugged in the wall charger is an energy vampire. That's because most portable gadget chargers continue to draw power even after the gadgets they're charging have done their jobs....
Pinch technology is a versatile tool for process design. Originally pioneered as a technique for reducing the capital and energy costs of a new plant, pinch technology is readily adaptable to identifying the potential for energy savings in an existing plant. Most recently, it has become established as a tool for debottlenecking, yield improvement, capital cost reduction, and enhanced flexibility. With the concern for the environment, design engineers can use the power of pinch technology to solve environmental problems.
Example, the USA tends to be a leader in remediation but lags behind Japan in energy efficiency and behind Germany and the Netherlands in developing consumer product 'take back' approaches (see Chapter 40). National cultures and technological trajectories are important determinants of such patterns (Gr bler 1998).
Keep in mind that the energy conservation law can be proved theoretically if the basic equations, so-called motion equations that fully determine the dynamics of all particles participating in the process, are known. But all attempts to prove the law of increasing (non-decreasing) entropy were unsuccessful. Moreover, Henry Poincare has proved that it is impossible to calculate entropy, even if co-ordinates, velocities, masses and momenta of all particles are known. Generally speaking, there is no theoretical proof of correctness of the First and Second Laws, so that all the proofs are experimental they are a consequence of our proper experience in our world. The problem of induction does exist maybe such extreme conditions exist that the First and Second Laws become non-applicable, either partly or wholly. In other words, maybe such virtual worlds with characteristic sizes and times that differ from ours exist, and in these worlds energy can be created or destroyed, and entropy of an...
Industrial ecology is claimed to be 'ecological' in that it places human activity 'industry' in the very broadest sense in a larger context of the biophysical environment from which resources are extracted and which is negatively affected by the emissions of effluents and wastes (Lifset 1997). It is also claimed that the natural systems can function as models for the man-made system in terms of efficient use of resources, energy and wastes. In this context, the famous Kalundborg example is often cited (for example, Ehrenfeld 1997). (Kalundborg is an industrial city in Denmark, where wastes from petroleum refineries and a power plant are profitably utilized in other industries.) On the critical side, voices have been raised that what has been achieved in Kalundborg is in fact standard engineering practice realized in many other places as well (Johansson 1997).
In another study of Garden Warblers Sylvia borin migrating north over the Sahara in spring, Biebach & Bauchinger (2003) estimated a generally lower rate of weight loss of 1.8 g per 1000 km, but obtained more detailed information of the loss from particular organs (Figure 5.6). The most pronounced weight reduction took place in the liver (57 ) and gastrointestinal tract (50 ), followed by the flight muscles (26 ), leg muscles (14 ) and heart (24 ). It could not be determined whether some of these changes (such as gut reduction) occurred immediately before take-off, or whether they occurred during the flight itself, but the latter seemed more likely (from the general correlation between body mass and gut mass). By reducing the size of organs before or during a flight, Garden Warblers were estimated to save around one-fifth of the energy needed for the same flight made without organ reduction. Protein catabolism made up about 34 of the overall saving, reduced maintenance costs 22 and...
As energy costs soar, fossil fuel-powered comfort, water availability, transportation, and food will become less available and affordable impacting the cost and functioning of everything. Since less net energy, coupled with the associated pollution and health issues, is the apparent future for nonrenewable-energy use, it poses a compelling challenge how to design structures that are powered by renewables on the site and region and how to design into the project the ability to fully function without nonrenewables.
All these indirect methods of estimating flight range make no allowance for the wind conditions in which particular birds migrate, for any effects of flight formations, or for other external variables that influence energy consumption. Flight range estimates could therefore be in considerable error. Nevertheless, particular models have useful comparative value for closely related species of similar shape and flight mode (Gudmundsson et al. 1991). Such models also provide a useful check on our understanding if estimates of flight ranges do not match what migrants on independent evidence are known to achieve, then our knowledge is probably deficient in some way. Another study of wild birds involved Swainson's Thrushes Catharus ustulus and Hermit Thrushes C. guttatus in the United States (Wikelski et al. 2003, Cochran & Wikelski 2005). Using doubly-labelled water and heart rate measurements, the daily energy costs of individuals that were not migrating at the time averaged 88 5 kJ per...
In clear air, SO2 is slowly oxidized to SO3 by homogeneous reactions. However, studies show that the rate of SO2 oxidation in a power plant plume can be 10 to 100 times the clear-air photooxidation rate (Gartrell, Thomas, and Carpenter 1963). Such a rapid rate of reaction is similar to that of oxidation in solution in the presence of a catalyst.
Ecological engineering incorporates contemporary envir onmental engineering practices with ecological principles to attain ecologically driven goals. Ecological engineering is defined as the design, restoration, or creation of eco systems, with a strong emphasis on ecosystem self design and self organization. When using ecological engineering to restore a system, often less effort is needed, or desired, to begin ecosystem recovery due to the self designing qualities of this approach. Stream conditions are designed to mimic the predisturbance environment and incorpo rate not only physical parameters such as channel dimensions and hydrologic variation, but also include species composition manipulation and water quality. Once these initial conditions are implemented, the system is left to organize itself. The basis for this approach is that the biotic component will organize itself through com munity interactions such as competition, predation, etc., to establish the most stable and...
Among the big ways in which socio-ecological material streams have been reregulated has been the Deep Lake Water Cooling project, a PPP with Enwave District Energy Limited in the lead. This scheme, which had been discussed in environmental activist circles in Toronto since the early 1990s, will eventually use pumped-in water from the bottom of Lake Ontario to cool the office towers in the central city in a much more efficient and ecologically sustainable way than its current oil-dependent method (City of Toronto 2005a). It is clear that this scheme, which was ridiculed less than a decade ago as environmentalist fantasy, has now gained the attention of the development elites of the inner city, who are keen on lowering their energy costs in an age of 50 barrel oil.
SFA indicators can be selected from the overview, by singling out a specific flow or stock as the relevant one to follow, or they can be calculated directly from the overview. Indicators may be defined for environmental flows and or stocks, as an addition to the numerous environmental quality indicators already existing. Other possibilities are indicators for economic substance flows, or indicators for integrated chain management, which bear on (possible, future) losses from the economy to the environment that is, 'leaks' out of the economic cycle. Examples include materials intensity, economic throughput, the technical or energy efficiency of groups of processes, secondary v. primary materials use
Insect behavior can be viewed from the standpoint of efficiency of resource acquisition and allocation (Sterner and Elser 2002, see also Chapter 4). Foraging should focus on resources that provide the best return and minimum risk for the effort expended. Hence, bumble bees, Bombus spp., forage on low-energy resources only at high temperatures when the insects do not require large amounts of energy to maintain sufficiently high body temperature for flight (Bell 1990, Heinrich 1979,1993). Other host-seeking insects tend to focus their searching where the probability of host discovery is highest (i.e., where hosts are concentrated or most apparent) (Bell 1990, Kareiva 1983).
The first law of thermodynamics for conservation of mass and energy is applicable to every process network. It is, therefore, applicable to every firm and every industry that is in a steady state. This means that, for every process or process chain, the mass inputs must equal the mass of outputs, including wastes. Moreover, in many processes, non-reactive chemical components, such as process water and atmospheric nitrogen, can also be independently balanced. Thus various independent material balance constraints may have to be satisfied for each process. In short, systematic use of material balance conditions can increase the accuracy of empirical data by reducing error bounds (Ayres 1995a, 1995b). Alternatively, the material balance conditions can be used to 'fill in' missing data. Furthermore, material balance conditions are not the only basis for data augmentation. Energy conservation, constitutive relationships or statistical methods can also be used.
Just like with your other portable gadgets, making energy-saving adjustments to your digital camera or camcorder that extend battery life can increase the number of shots or hours of footage you can capture. And as with all portable gadgets that have backlit screens, turning down the brightness uses less battery juice.
And Assessment. http www-naweb.iaea.org - Trace and macro-elements - Cu Values Assigned in Anthropogenic Pollution Materials, International Atomic Energy Agency. http digestive.niddk.nih.gov - Wilson's Disease, National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NDDIC).
The main parameters in baghouse design are the pressure drop and air-to-cloth ratio. Pressure drop is important because higher pressure drops imply that more energy is required to pull gas through the system. The air-to-cloth ratio determines the unit size and thus, capital cost. This ratio is the result of dividing the volume flow of gas received by a baghouse by the total area of the filtering cloth and is usually expressed as acfm ft2. This ratio is also referred to as the face velocity. Higher air-to-cloth ratios mean less fabric, therefore less capital cost. However, higher ratios can lead to high pressure drops forcing energy costs up. Also, more frequent bag cleanings may be required, increasing downtime. Fabric filters are classified by their cleaning method or the direction of gas flow and hence the location of the dust deposit.
This is helpful if you or someone else in your house is tapping into the Internet wirelessly with a notebook computer or video game console in another room. If not, turning off your broadband modem and router rewards you with even greater savings. Adjusting your computer's energy-saving settings is covered from head to toe in Part III.
The Todd River Dolomite in the northeastern Amadeus Basin is composed of six facies described in detail by Kennard (1991). Three siliciclastic-carbonate units are overlain by high-energy reef shoals, low-energy shelf deposits with patch reefs, and stromato-litic mudrocks. Six archaeocyath taxa and a radiocyath were described by Kruse (in Kruse and West 1980) as predominantly from the reef-shoal facies at Ross River. Most are restricted to the Amadeus and Georgina basins, but Beltanacyathus sp. at the base of the reef-shoal facies, an indeterminate trilobite, and the brachiopod Edreja aff. dis-tincta (Laurie and Shergold 1985 Laurie 1986) higher in the section indicate that both the upper tenuis and tardus zones may be represented. Rare archaeocyaths in micro-bial bioherms in the underlying barrier bar facies have not been described.
Debunking what you know about your computer's power consumption Determining your computer's energy needs Adjusting computer energy-saving settings Finding energy vampires among your peripheral devices use a lot of energy, yet most people admit that they use their com-W puters only half the time it's turned on (or even less). Adjusting your computer's power-saving settings to minimize energy consumption is an easy and easily overlooked way to reduce your personal carbon footprint.
Extraction of soil materials for use in the building industry requires low energy consumption. Drilling and explosives are unnecessary. It often takes place in quarries, and if these are large they can damage The energy consumption for firing clay products is very high (see Table 8.5). Fossil oil is the usual source of energy, but wood, peat or a combination of electricity and coal can also be used. When oil alone is used large amounts of greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, acidic sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released. The brick industry has become increasingly more centralized in Europe. This has resulted in heavier energy consumption for transport and distribution.
If applying energy-saving settings with an easy-to-use utility or widget sounds more appealing than getting down and dirty with all your computer's power settings, you've come to the right place. This section offers a quick tour of several easy-to-use power management utilities and widgets that take the guesswork out of adjusting your computer's energy settings. Downloading one or more of these helpers lets you set it and forget it. Table 6-2 Energy-Saving Add-Ons for the Mac and Windows . Automates energy-saving actions such as Shut Down, Hibernate, and Wake Up plus hot keys for fast, on-the-fly power mode switching. Eliminates the guesswork of adjusting your computer's energy-saving settings.
When you adjust Mac and Windows energy-saving settings, the goal is the same to achieve a good balance of power savings without sacrificing performance. The steps you take vary from platform to platform and in Windows, from version to version. In this section, I discuss the myriad ways you can adjust your computer's energy-saving options. Adjusting energy savings based around the clock and your schedule. Adjusting energy savings based around the clock and your schedule. Because I'm familiar with both Mac and Windows PC energy-saving settings and options, it's fair to say that each side has its pluses and minuses. The Mac's settings are supereasy to figure out, though I wish that the Mac offered a way to easily force it into deep sleep Hibernate mode. As for Windows, I like its ability to create a custom power scheme (in Windows XP) or power plan (in Windows Vista) to best suit my energy needs, depending on what I'm working on or not working on.
Coastal erosion is modelled in Figure 3.8. The principal energy sources are tide and wind, which generates waves. River discharge is locally important and, in particular, it transports sediments eroded from uplands to coastal waters. Coastlines are classified according to their energy, with erosion dominating in high energy zones and sedimentation dominating in low energy zones. Inman and Brush (1973) provide energy signatures for the coastal zone with a global perspective. Wave energy is particularly important and it is described below by Bascom (1964) Geomorphic work in the coastal zone builds a variety of landforms including channels and inlets, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, and mudflats. Vegetation is an important controlling factor in relatively low energy environments but with increasing energy, vegetation becomes less important, and purely physical systems such as beaches are found.
Minimizing your Windows computer's energy consumption on-the-fly is a no-brainer On Windows XP, click the Start button and then the red Power button (Shut Down). Clicking the Power button opens a dialog box to let you choose whether to put the computer in Sleep or Hibernate mode (hold down the shift key to see that option) or power it off, depending on how the Windows XP Power Options are set. Here are some other ways to activate the Windows energy-saving features, which I describe in more detail in the next section
Performing the smartest energy-saving actions need not rest on your shoulders alone. Letting your computer remember for you is easy all it takes are a few simple adjustments to the Power Options control panel. You change the power options such as how long your computer waits before it turns off the display, powers off the hard disk, or enters Standby or Hibernate mode by using the Power Options control panel.
Critical control and feedback functions which enhance the survival of the system. Cleveland et al. and Kaufmann show that much of the decline in the energy real GDP ratio in industrial nations is due to the shift from coal to petroleum and primary electricity. Their results show that autonomous energy-saving technical change has had little, if any, effect on the energy real GDP ratio. Stern finds that accounting for fuel quality produces an unambiguous causal connection between energy use and economic growth in the United States, confirming the unique, critical role that energy plays in the production of wealth.
The caloric content per ash free gram of whole organisms varies between approximately 4500 calories per gram, found in carbohydrates and many whole plants, to 8000-9000 calories per gram found in pure fats. Most animals usually are around 5600, the value for protein mixed with a little fat. Efficiency of particular energy consumption processes can also be evaluated by considering biochemical equations directly, but ecologists do not often do this. When circumstances permit, all organisms can reproduce and grow far more than is needed for their own replacement, however death rates will exceed the rates of growth and reproduction when circumstances change. Periods of low energy income and high mortality are interspersed with periods of high-energy availability and high growth and reproductive rate.
In a growing population, the rate of energy consumption is greater than the rate at which energy is discharged from the population. At its upper limit, ecological efficiency is greatest when a population is rapidly growing and such a short time interval is considered that no deaths or losses of potential energy from individuals have occurred. At the lower limit, ecological efficiency of the focus population goes to zero as a starving population approaches extinction or if there are no predators.
Tweaking a power plan with the Vista advanced power settings can yield energy-saving benefits. To get under your computer's proverbial hood to access and adjust a number of additional energy-saving settings, follow these steps The Windows Vista advanced power settings unlock energy savings. The Windows Vista advanced power settings unlock energy savings.
What Network Thermodynamics and physical systems theory have done is to demonstrate that the mathematical formalism that makes electrical circuit theory possible is applicable to all physical systems. The Newtonian approach can be replaced by energy conservation as shown in the simple example of a particle's trajectory. It is also possible to treat large complicated systems using network theory to obtain equations of motion and trajectories. The systems would be very cumbersome if treated as traditional boundary value problems even thought that is what they are. Here is where topology plays the key role. Instead of setting up a large number of differential equations and struggling to make sure they are a system by matching a large number of boundary conditions, the combination of constitutive equations for the circuit elements and topology for keeping their connections straight is a real savings in effort. It also supplies a lot of mathematical structure that would never have been...
Extraction and refining crude oil and natural gas as raw materials for the plastic industry have a large impact on the environment. Depending on their type, plastics also emit a long list of damaging substances both during production and use, and when they are dumped or recycled. Important here are large emissions of greenhouse gases both as a result of chemical reactions and high energy consumption in the production process (Tables 9.9 and 9.10).
A second import point is that even though it is independent of mechanism, it can be used to derive mechanistic models when used in the proper context. A primitive example of this is the use of energy conservation (The First Law of Thermodynamics) to derive the particle trajectory mentioned earlier.
You can tweak the Windows Vista and XP power options as described in the previous section to automatically move a few seats closer to the front of the class for minimizing energy consumption when you're using and not using your PC. Well done, old chap. But why settle for anything but the best energy-saving setup possible Making a few additional adjustments can move you to the head of the computer conservation class, earning you the right to stick a green star on your forehead, if that's your idea of fun. Why not You certainly will deserve it after tending to these extra-savings extra credits.
The possibility of transmaterialization implies that more comprehensive indicators for material consumption should be used when patterns in materials and energy consumption are interpreted in the light of overall environmental pressure. Such indicators can be seen as representative of the total flow of 'throughput', defined by Daly (1991b, p.36) as the physical flow of matter energy from the environment, through the economy and ultimately back to nature's sinks. Only a few empirical studies have formulated and analyzed such indicators over time. Ayres (1989a) presents data for the US economy for four years between 1960 and 1975. Bringezu et al. (1994) estimate total material consumption (including removal of earth for mining) for West Germany for five years between 1980 and 1989 (see Chapter 23). More recently, a consortium of institutions (Adriaanse et al. 1997) has investigated the resource inputs of 30 substances for four countries (the USA, Japan, the Netherlands and West...
This handy control panel is an all-in-one dashboard of modules for gauging and controlling a number of Windows Vista settings of the energy-saving variety. To open it, choose StartOControl PanelOWindows Mobility Center. Settings you can monitor and change on any Vista notebook include those shown in the upper two rows in Figure 7-11 Throughout this section, I give you details about other ways of adjusting these settings to garner energy savings.
In the case of iron, ore is first converted in blast furnaces to pig iron, then into finished steel. The most typical reducer in blast furnaces is coke from coal. Although new pollution control and energy efficiency investments have improved the environmental performance of the coking process, coke production is the dirtiest process in the ferrous metal sector (Ayres 1997), at least in
The production of plant-based building materials is mainly local or regional. Energy consumption for processing and transportare relatively low, as is pollution occurring at the cultivating, harvesting and refining stages (Tables 10.3 and 10.4). This favourable environmental profile will be reflected in the building's overall ecological footprint, as well as by a good indoor climate. Most of these materials also have quite a long life, in particular wherever the conditions of use are fairly dry, and where they can dry out quickly after exposure to rain or humidity. Global warming is expected to cause significantly more rot damage in northern latitudes, whereas Western and Southern Europe will experience a decrease in risk (Noah's Ark, 2006).
Their definitive characteristic is that they do not occur in dense or nearly homogeneous stands. Most of them are not confined to flood-plains or their margins, but instead are dispersed throughout the Tucson Basin and the surrounding foothills and montane regions. Harvesting costs for grasses are generally quite high and provide low energy return rates (Cane 1989 Simms 1987). They could have been obtained and processed using the same suite of tools applied to high- and low-density floodplain weeds.
Strategies for controlling coastal erosion depend on the energy level of the coast. High-energy coastlines with strong waves and or tidal flows are usually protected by hard engineering alternatives while vegetation-based systems (i.e., soft bioengineering) can be used in low-energy settings. Protection is required for average conditions and for storm events along all coasts. Vegetation-based systems can be used for erosion control along low-energy coastlines. These are wetland ecosystems dominated by plant species with special adaptations for flooding and salt tolerance. Along the Earth's coastlines, vegetation type generally is determined by the presence or absence of frost. In temperate and arctic regions, marshes with perennial herbaceous vegetation are found which die back aboveground each winter due to frost stress (i.e., saltmarsh). In the lowland tropics where temperatures are never below freezing, woody tree vegetation (i.e., mangroves) is found which is evergreen and has no...
Doing this, the different types of environmental behaviours are considered implicitly dependent on the same elements. It is interesting to look at the classification of environmental behaviours as proposed by Stern (2000). He suggests distinguishing the so-called environmental behaviours by either their intention or their impact on the environment. Classifying them by their intention means that the behaviour is defined by the actor's motivation to protect the environment, without considering its real impact on the environment. Certain behaviours may be adopted with the intent of reducing environmental impact, without necessarily producing a minor impact on the environment. The classification based on the impact does not focus on the actors' motivations but defines a type of behaviour by its environmental impacts. Gatersleben et al. (2002) have shown that behaviour adopted with the intention of protecting the environment is determined more by attitude-related variables, while...
Forests can also play an important role regulating the timing and quantity of runoff. The economic value of forests in the watershed of the Yangtze River above Three Gorges Dam, in western Hubei Province, Central China, was quantified in a study published in 2000. Here, the Gexhouba Hydroelectric Power Plant, the largest hydro-facility in China, producing 15.7 billion kW annually, requires a narrow range of flows on the Yangtze in order to run at full power. If the water level is too high, then water must be released through the sluice gates, causing the water level below the dam to rise, reducing the amount of power that can be produced at very high flows, turbines are drowned and cannot work at all. If the water is too low, then generators cannot run at full power.
In photosynthesis, as in all energy transfers, only a portion of the energy is converted into a usable form (second law of thermodynamics). The utilization of light energy can be described by the yield coefficient of quanta capture (fi v), which is defined as the molar quantity of fixed carbon per mol of absorbed light quanta. The quantum yield coefficient is constant (fi vmax) in the light-limited region of the P-I curve (see Section 4.3.5). In the light-saturated part of the curve the quantum yield coefficient decreases with the reciprocal of light intensity, since the rate of photosynthesis stays constant, despite increasing light intensity. For phytoplank-ton, fivmax values of 0.03-0.09 have been found (Tilzer 1984a). Assuming a caloric equivalent of 468 kJ for 1 mol C and 218 kJ for 1 mol of photosyn-thetically active radiation (PAR) with a wavelength of 550 nm (mean value of the PAR spectrum), the efficiency of energy use works out as 6.3-19.3 . The maximum possible quantum...
As already noted, Japan realized a notable improvement in its energy efficiency after the energy crises of the 1970s and was able to continue rapid economic development with a minimum increase in energy dependency and carbon emissions (Figure 20.1). In order to elucidate the sources of this dramatic trend shift, Table 20.4 and Figure 20.2 analyze factors contributing to changes in manufacturing industry CO2 emissions over the period 1970-94. While the average annual increase in production by value added between 1974 and 1994 was maintained at a reasonable level of 4.06 per cent, average carbon emissions fell by 0.71 per cent. Table 20.4 and Figure 20.2 indicate that 71 per cent of this reduction in carbon emissions can be attributed to efforts to improve energy efficiency
Even if it is difficult to forecast long-term resource demands by developing economies, we know for certain that Chinese crude steel production grew over the last decade from 100-500 million tons (Figure 6.1). No equivalent growth pattern has been observed in any region of the world at any time in the past. This example demonstrates that growth of population and affluence in developing economies combine to increase the demand for mineral resources signifi cantly. Technological innovation will be a signifi cant driving force in determining future demand for some specific metals. In particular, the possible side effects of increasing demand for metals involved in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies should be noted.
Equilibrium species A species whose main survival strategy is competitive ability rather than reproductive rate or dispersal success. Such species are typical of stable environments. In unstable environments, such species rely on surviving unfavorable conditions by saving energy, entering a sate of dormancy or estivation with minimal metabolic demands, rather than relying on, in plants, for example, producing seeds that will germinate when conditions improve. Compare fugitive species.
Instantly minimizing your Mac's energy use Automatically adjusting your Mac's Energy-Saver settings Fine-tuning energy-saving settings on the Mac save greenbacks while doing a little something for the environment. You manage your Mac's energy usage and settings in three general ways Making other adjustments, such as disabling your Mac's Bluetooth and AirPort wireless features if you aren't using them, also helps reduce your Mac's carbon footprint. Applying these energy-saving adjustments, and others, is described in the section Making Additional Mac Energy-Saving Adjustments, later in this chapter.
Minimizing your Mac's energy consumption on-the-fly is a no-brainer Press your Mac's power button and then click either the Sleep or Shut Down button in the dialog that opens (see Figure 8-1). Or, skip the mouse click and press the S key to choose sleep, or press Return to tell your Mac to shut down. Instant energy savings Instant energy savings
Being responsible and remembering to perform the smartest energy-saving actions need not rest on your shoulders alone, however. Let your Mac remember for you, by setting it up to take care of its energy-saving options for itself. All it takes are a few simple adjustments to your Mac's Energy Saver Preferences panel, as described in the following section.
To the roots and in the sludge residue (Figure 1). The overall reduction of the sludge volume occurs without the use of chemicals. The process involves only a very low level of energy consumption for pumping the sludge and reject water (Figure 2). Experience from reference plants is that this type of system is capable of treating many types of sludge having a dry solids content in the range of c. 0.5-5 .
The Energy Saver no-brainer controls make saving energy a cinch. The Energy Saver no-brainer controls make saving energy a cinch. Taking advantage of your Mac's Energy Settings undoubtedly helps minimize its carbon footprint, but wait there's more You have more ways to minimize your Mac's power usage by switching off certain features or other devices. You have more ways to save running downloadable miniprograms or widgets that simplify the process of making the smartest energy-saving settings possible.
Tweaking your Mac's Energy Saver options as described earlier in this chapter automatically moves you a few seats closer to front of the class for minimizing energy consumption when you're using and not using your Mac. Well done, 'ol chap. But why settle for anything other than the best energy-saving setup possible Making a few additional adjustments can earn you the right to stick a green star on your forehead, if that's your idea of fun. Why not You'll certainly have deserved it after tending to these extra-savings extra credits.
Fishing and fish mortality from power plants. Any The effects of electric generation plants on the Hudson's anadromous fish stocks continue to be monitored but are not necessarily well understood. Much of the knowledge gained between 1963 and 1980 through studies conducted in the course of the controversies over the effects of existing and proposed power plants on the Hudson River was summarized in Barnthouse et al. (1988). However, comparatively little information learned over the next score of years has reached the peer-reviewed literature and much of it remains in narrowly distributed and thinly distilled reports. Although the Settlement Agreement included provisions to reduce power plant-mortality of anadromous fishes, fundamental issues persist, such as whether compensatory processes mitigate mortalities to significant degrees. The role of power plants in the population dynamics of Hudson River fishes is likely to remain unclear in the near-term future as a reshuffling of...
Results from life cycle assessments on the production of various metals by a number of different processing routes, particularly copper and nickel, have been used to quantify the likely magnitude of the increases in energy and water consumption as ore grade falls for these metals. The need to grind finer-grained ores to finer sizes to liberate valuable minerals has been examined, and the likely magnitude of the increase in energy consumption resulting from this eventuality quantified for copper and nickel production. In light of the need to produce primary metals from ores well into the future, a number of possible approaches to mitigate these effects of increased energy and water consumption as ore quality falls are discussed. Given the significance of the mineral processing stage to these energy and water impacts, these approaches focus primarily on this stage of the metal production supply chain. Additional issues that arise from the deterioration in ore quality are discussed...
Water withdrawal by electric power plants Initial concern about potential impacts of power plants was that the heated effluent would cause harm to the biota, but it was soon seen that the larger potential threat was direct mortality due to two factors entrainment, or the passage of small organisms, particularly fishlarvae, through theplants and across the heated turbines and impingement, or the trapping of fish on intake screens designed to keep large particles out of the cooling water inlets. Gradually, attention focused mostly on the potential impacts of the power plants on a few representative and important species, but primarily on striped bass. During the fifteen years since the Hudson River Settlement Agreement expired, the utility companies continued to monitor fish communities and produce annual reports. In addition, they prepared a new draft environmental impact statement (DEIS, 1999). In the meantime, the Federal government deregulated the power industry, and over the past...
The process of migration is typically divided into periods of refueling and flights between consecutive stopovers. Even though the flights are sometimes spectacular because of their length and altitude, they only take about one-seventh of the total migration time in small passerines (Hedenstrom and Alerstam 1997). Flight is energetically very expensive but due to the relatively fast transport, and hence short time required, only about one-third of the total energy consumption is flight cost, while the remaining two-thirds is spent while on the ground (Hedenstrom and Alerstam 1997). Studies on the timing of migratory flights, flocking, flight directions, speed, and wind drift, are often carried out at migration hotspots where large numbers of migrants can be observed. As always, the question asked dictates the method used. Because the overall speed of migration is to a large extent determined by the rate of energy accumulation (Alerstam and Hedenstrom 1998), we often want to monitor...
Two important processes for growth are anabolism (building molecules and new tissue) and catabolism (breaking down of molecules and old tissue). Together with the biochemical processes required for maintenance of the body, locomotion, and other activities, these processes are collectively termed metabolism. Across different taxa, metabolic processes often scale as power laws of body size. For example, standard metabolic rate B (energy consumption measured in watts) is proportional to a power function of body mass W (kg) as
Energy Performance Energy-efficiency strategies that capitalize on the local climate use of sunlight, ground temperature, orientation of structures, and transit are important push factors to efficient development. These efforts range from the more standard approaches, such as improving local energy codes, to more creative options, such as establishing alternative green power use and regional transit systems.
Life cycle analysis (LCA) has been studied since the 1970s in Japan, although the term 'life cycle assessment' has been applied recently with a far stricter definition. The main concern was the analysis of life cycle energy consumption (called 'energy analysis' by Kaya 1980). Life cycle energy (LCE) was studied not only in energy systems such as electric utilities using different fuel sources, but also with respect to products such as clothing, food and housing, in order to understand the overall structure of energy use from the viewpoint of final demand for commodities and services.
IOA was already applied for the above-mentioned energy analysis, in the late 1970s. Energy consumption by sectors is indicated in physical unit tables, which officially accompany the national IO tables. Other official statistics on energy consumption are often used in order to supplement the data in the physical unit tables, in which data coverage and accuracy are not complete. Once sectoral direct energy consumption per unit of output is quantified, one can easily calculate overall sectoral energy intensity, including indirect energy consumption in upstream industries, by applying the Leontief inverse matrix. This calculation process has been applied to energy consumption, CO2 emission (Kondo et al. 1996 Kondo and Moriguchi 1997), traditional air pollutants (SOx, NOx) (Hondo et al.
The second annual Green Electronics Survey evaluated in 2008 a total of 50 products manufactured and submitted by 15 companies. The survey evaluated such factors as whether products contain hazardous chemicals, level of energy efficiency, lifecycle based on ability to recycle and upgrade, design innovation, and the promotion of environmental friendliness. High-powered gaming and energy consumption. The good news is that fewer products now contain PVC plastic or hazardous chemicals. Greenpeace also found that most companies adhere to the latest Energy Star requirements while also rolling out better voluntary take-back and recycling programs. High-powered gaming and energy consumption.
The role of disease in mammals can be generalized to all vertebrates (Yuill 1987). Parasites can be expected in all wildlife species in every ecosystem. Death of the host is unusual and occurs only if (i) serious illness facilitates transmission, as in rabies (ii) the parasite does not depend on the infected host for survival and can complete its life cycle after the host dies and (iii) the pathogen moves through host populations over a wide geographic area and over a long period of time. Disease may have a drastic effect on survival of wildlife but more commonly its effects are subtle. It can adversely affect natality or normal movement. Brucellosis in caribou has both effects. A caribou cow infected with brucellosis may abort her fetus, and the same disease may also cause lameness from degenerative arthritis in the leg joints. Infective agents can also affect the host's energy balance by reducing energy intake or increasing energy costs through higher body temperature and metabolic...
Promotion, policy, and the fostering of business and strategic relationships. A study by the CEA found that nearly 90 percent of consumers consider energy efficiency to be an important factor in picking out a television to buy. The name of the study is Environmental Sustainability and Innovation in the Consumer Electronics Industry and you can find it here In 2007, Best Buy sold seven million products with the Energy Star label on them. According to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) accounting, these purchases saved those people 8100 million in utility bills while preventing an estimated 1.4 billion pounds of carbon emissions from flaking out into the atmosphere. That's similar to plucking nearly 130,000 cars off the street.
In the activated-sludge process, bacteria are the most important microorganisms in decomposing the organic material in the influent. During treatment, aerobic and facultative bacteria use a portion of the organic matter to obtain energy to synthesize the remaining organic material into new cells. Only a portion of the original waste is actually oxidized to low-energy compounds such as nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide the remainder of the waste is synthesized into cellular material. In addition, many intermediate products are formed before the end products.
When daily energy requirements of an animal are to be computed, at least three basic formulations must be kept in mind. Basal metabolic rate (BMR), proposed in 1947 by M. Kleiber, a pioneer in the field of animal energetics, is considered to be an exponential function of body weight described by the equation BMR 70 x W0,75 kcal day for placental mammals. Active metabolic rate (AMR), including normal activity such as foraging, movement, and resting, is usually taken to be a simple multiple (usually 2) of BMR. In addition, females incur energy costs associated with pregnancy and lactation, the latter being the more important according to O. T. Oftedal. This can again be taken as a simple multiple (e.g., 2.7) of BMR or computed from more complex formulations of milk production and energy yield.
The western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), native to North America, has shown rapid evolutionary change in several locations to which it has been introduced (Stearns 1983a Stockwell and Weeks 1999). Stearns noted adaptive genetic changes in life history characteristics of mosqui-tofish introduced to Hawaii over a period of about 70 generations. Stockwell and Weeks (1999) found genetic change in body fat content and size at maturity in populations of mosquitofish introduced to thermal springs in Nevada. In this case, the changes probably occurred over about 110-165 generations (Table 8.1). Meffe et al. (1996) observed selection for increased temperature tolerance in populations of a related species (Gambusia holbrooki) over 60-90 generations in a power plant cooling pond in South Carolina.
Japanese TMR is about 45 tons per capita, which is much lower than the other three countries studied (around 85 tons per capita). This is mainly because of smaller energy consumption per capita and lower dependency on coal. In terms of DMI per capita, the Japanese figure is only slightly smaller than those of Germany and the USA. DMI per capita for the Netherlands is also on a similar level, if huge transit import flows to other European countries are excluded. Dependency on imported material flows varies largely among countries, from less than
In Chapter 1, I talk about the basic charters of the two key players in the electronics energy efficiency standards game Energy Star and EPEAT. Becoming acquainted with them can help you choose the greenest gadgets, computers, and other electronics. Energy Star Launched in 1992 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program is designed to help consumers identify energy-efficient products. Initially, computers and monitors were the first products to wear the Energy Star logo, and since partnering with the Department of Energy in 1996 for additional product categories, the label can now be found on everything from major appliances and office equipment to DVD players and set-top cable TV boxes. (Not to mention notebook and desktop PCs, printers, and other computer-related products.) Check out www.energystar.gov. All EPEAT-registered products are automatically Energy Star qualified. The EPEAT and Energy Star Web sites have information about whether a specific computer,...
FIG. 7.31.8 Colorado Springs treatment plant section producing an effluent quality that is acceptable as power plant makeup water. FIG. 7.31.8 Colorado Springs treatment plant section producing an effluent quality that is acceptable as power plant makeup water. The retention time in the contact clarifier is 1.25 hr, and the anthracite coal and sand filters are hydraulically loaded at a rate of 20 gpm per sq ft. Plant operating expenses are reduced from the sale of the effluent as power plant makeup water at a production rate of 2 mgd. The biological sludge in this plant is the first application of the Porteous heat treatment process in the United States.
The effects on energy efficiency are also sensitive to biochemical flexibility. Taking glucose as an example, the energy stored and released in the complete oxidation of its molecule is equivalent to 2.821 kJ mol-1, or 470 kJ per mol carbon syn-thesised. The electron stoichiometry of the synthesis cannot be less than 8 mol photon (mol C)-1 but, energetically, the photon efficiency is weaker. The interconversion of Morel and Smith (1974 see above 1 mol photon 218 kJ) implies an average investment of the energy of 12.94 photons mol-1. This coincides more closely to the highest quantum yields determined experimentally (0.07-0.09 mol C per mol photon Bannister and Weidemann, 1984 D. Walker, 1992).
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