Without mechanisms for expanding needs, people are inclined to work less rather than earn more, as demonstrated by the need for early industrialists to cut pay in order to force workers to work a 'full' working day (Gorz, 1989, ch.9). Or, as Sismondi expressed it in the early years of the Industrial Revolution, 'Luxury is not possible except when it is paid for by the labour of others' (quoted in Smith, 1993 188) self-employed artisans chose leisure over luxury.
Urbanization has now become synonymous with the globalization of economic and cultural life. In 1900 there were no more than a dozen cities in the world with more than a million people and agriculture remained the dominant economic activity except for a relatively small number of industrialized nations. By the end of the twentieth century, however, over 500 cities had populations exceeding 1 million people and over half of the world's population was urban. The contemporary urbanization revolution dwarfs the experience of nineteenth-century Europe and North America yet is distinct from this earlier transition in a number of critical respects. The so-called brown agenda , which dominated the rancorous UN environmental summit held in Johannesburg in 2002, reflects the scale of the public health challenge facing contemporary cities but the current housing and sanitation crisis has originated in a fundamentally different context to that of the nineteenth-century city. These rapidly growing...
The origins of transmaterialization can be found in several aspects of the growth literature. Schumpeter (1927) developed a theory supporting the view that growth comes in spurts and appears as cyclical upswings. According to Schumpeter, progress is due to economically induced innovations, their gradual adoption and successful entrepreneurship. A more familiar notion of growth and one which underlies the Schumpeterian idea of progress specifies growth as following an S-shaped curve. Prescott (1922), Kuznets (1930) and Burns (1934) evaluated this growth theory for a sample of individual commodities and industries. Later Dean (1950) expanded this theory into the 'product life cycle' theory. The application of these theories to a number of different variables and different industries was later confirmed by Nakicenovic (1990).
Enormously important role in Coney's formative history, as several commentators have noted. It is clear from the descriptions of the time that one of the most important aspects of Coney Island was the way its entrepreneurs commodified sex as mass entertainment , notes Carlin (1989 10), while Snow remarks that Coney's clang and glitter always had a current of sexuality running through it (1984 15).
Convenient place and it is inconceivable that these activities are accurately recorded. In Vietnam, for example, at headlands along the coast, individual entrepreneurs quarry granite, while around towns and cities small brick clay pits leave a series of derelict hollows and degraded soils. In inland China, villagers operate small crushers making aggregates from rock quarried from tiny rock outcrops near their fields. Many hundreds of thousands of tonnes of material are worked in this way and in clay pits (Edmonds 1994) and inefficient unauthorized mines (Qu and Li 1994), thereby degrading potential agricultural land. Road construction in remote areas, such as logging roads in Borneo,
The case studies presented in this issue illustrate a range of projects and activities where park managers, NGOs, local communities and the international community have worked together with mixed successes to achieve the ever elusive goal - sustainable biodiversity in a changing and anthropocentric world. The sort of commitment, entrepreneurship, flexibility and opportunism exhibited on the ground may be a foretaste of what will be needed to maintain many other major protected areas and sites of high biodiversity value.
A dynamic analysis approach also allows the identification of the main success factors for full institutionalization of LCA or, conversely, the factors suggesting failure. There are several main factors influencing the institutionalization of LCA in business decisionmaking processes (Frankl and Rubik 1999). Among the most important is the presence and influence of a 'champion' (or 'entrepreneur'), who pushes LCA activities within the company. Other key factors are the mandate of top management, the involvement of practitioners and development of formalized structures, the establishment of internal communication channels, the development of internal know-how and a long-term environmental commitment. However, the most important single factor in the success of the whole institutionaliza-tion process is the presence and influence of a personally committed 'entrepreneur' or 'champion', who pushes LCA activities within the firm. His role is particularly crucial in the...
By the mid-1990s, tourism had become the largest industry in the world. Each year, more than half a billion people spend some time as international tourists, while uncounted millions more travel domestically. The advance of tourism has reached farther and deeper into more isolated areas of the planet than all the invasions and migrations of history. Many areas are becoming dependent on the tourism sector as their primary source of income. The infrastructure built to facilitate this transnational flow of people, goods, services, and currency includes air, rail, land, and sea carriers, roads and airports, hotels, restaurants, and resort complexes. Tourist ministries, international agencies, and entrepreneurs also restore heritage sites, promote commercial handicraft enterprises, and commodify nature and culture for mass consumption.
While Venice was closed down and its plague-dead leadership was being replenished from youthful entries in its Golden Book. . . . Dutch and English entrepreneurs moved into its traditional marketing territories around the Adriatic and Eastern Mediterranean. Once in possession they stayed. Shorn of its major markets and burdened with leaders suffering from sclerosis (young in body but old in mind), Venice soon found itself only a regional power with no economic clout. From this it was but a short step to becoming a museum city.53
Reclamation of paper and cardboard by small entrepreneurs is highly organized in cities as diverse as Nairobi, Calcutta, Cairo and Beijing. Recycling is increasing in many countries, but much more remains to be done (see Chapter 44). In Denmark, taxes on many types of solid wastes have increased recycling to over 61 per cent of household waste generation. In the UK, landfill and aggregate taxes have been introduced to encourage recycling of potential wastes but only some 8 per cent of household waste was being recycled or composted in 1998 (UK Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions 1999). Some 53.6MMT of C&D waste are produced annually, but only some 5MMT per year of such materials are re-used for civil engineering and building construction. The potential, however, is not always matched by practical feasibility, within the context of both current standards specifications and geographical location, where low price and the cost of transport to areas of substantial...
This suggests a possible alternative to the standard academic career track. The time between undergraduate education and graduate school is a great and mostly untapped time to influence young people before they commit to one career or another. What do they need More than further exposure to the professoriate, they need exposure to people doing great things with courage, stamina, and creativity. They need mentors and role models, and these are most often found among those actually changing the world. Instead of career planning, they need a deeper and more vivid concept of what it means to live a life of service and commitment in what surely will be the most fateful period in human history. They need a compass to chart a life course that combines intellect, heart, judgment, and professional skills. There are a few precedents for this kind of experience, including the Watson Fellowship program and the Ashoka Network of social entrepreneurs assembled by Bill Drayton (Bornstein 1998).
Entrepreneurs imported gypsy moths into this country via Europe from the Orient for silk production. The industrialists intended to use the larvae to produce silk for the North American textile industry, as the silkworm serves in China. Importation from France occurred in 1869 serious damage was observed as early as 1889 near Boston.
The idea that forestry should aim at bringing a bigger share of forest benefits to local people is embedded in the concept of social forestry. At FAO, it is called forestry for local community development (Arnold 2003). Social forestry is defined as any situation that closely involves local people in forestry activities, for which people assume responsibilities, and from which they derive a direct benefit through their own efforts. Because of their complexity, many environmentally sound forest management practices are best suited to small farmers, agricultural cooperatives, or community forest users, rather than to larger farms or larger-scale entrepreneurs (Montagnini et al. 2002). Community forestry has the following general characteristics
Homes, apartments, small businesses, and other municipal enterprises account for less than one-tenth of the world's total water use. However, their demands are concentrated in relatively small geographic areas, and in many cases are escalating rapidly. As cities expand, they strain the capacity of local water bodies and force engineers to reach out to ever more distant sources.
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