emission charge noun a fee paid by a company to be allowed to discharge waste into the environment emission credit noun the amount by which an industrialised country can buy emission reductions in a less developed country, under the Kyoto agreement of 1997. | Kyoto Protocol emission factor noun the ratio between the pollution produced and the amount of fuel burnt emission rate noun the amount of pollutant produced over a specific period emission standard noun the amount of an effluent or pollutant that can legally be released into the environment, e.g. the amount of sewage which can be discharged into a river or the sea, or the amount of carbon monoxide that can legally be released into the atmosphere by petrol and diesel engines emissions trading noun the system of one country using some of another country's permitted emission amount as well as its own, as a result of the rule that any new source of pollution must be offset by the reduction of pollution from existing sources emission tax noun a tax levied on air or water emissions emit verb to send out matter, energy or a signal O radiation emitted by the sun O An X-ray tube emits radiation. (note: emitting - emitted)

emulsifier noun a substance added to mixtures of food such as water and oil to hold them together. | stabiliser. Also called emulsifying agent (note: Emulsifi-ers are used in sauces and added to meat to increase the water content so that the meat is heavier. In the European Union, emulsifiers and stabilisers have E numbers E322 to E495.)

emulsify verb to mix two liquids so thoroughly that they will not separate emulsifying agent noun same as emul-sifier

EN abbr 1. endangered species 2. English Nature encapsulation noun the enclosure of something inside something else, especially for protection enclosure noun an area surrounded by a fence, often to contain animals. Compare exclosure encroach on verb to come close to and gradually cover something O The town is spreading beyond the by-pass, encroaching on farming land. O Trees are spreading down the mountain and encroaching on the lower more fertile land in the valleys. endanger verb to put something in danger O Pollution from the factory is endangering the aquatic life in the lakes. endangered species noun a species that is facing a risk of extinction in the wild, usually taken to be when fewer than 250 mature individuals exist. Abbr EN (note: The plural is endangered species.) endemic adjective 1. referring to an organism that exists or originated from a specific area O The isolation of the islands has led to the evolution of endemic forms. O The northern part of the island is inhabited by many endemic mammals and birds. 2. referring to a disease that occurs within a specific area O This disease is endemic to Mediterranean countries. | epidemic, pandemic endemic population noun a group of organisms existing in a specific geographic area endemic species noun a species that is native to a specific geographic area endo- prefix inside or within. Compare ecto-

endocarp noun the innermost of the layers of the wall (pericarp) of a fruit (note: Sometimes it is toughened or hardened, as in a cherry stone or peach stone.) endocrine disrupter, endocrine inhibitor noun a substance that damages the activity of the endocrine system, sometimes causing reproductive or developmental problems, sometimes because it has a similar action to a natural hormone end-of-life directive noun a set of regulations about the disposal of something such as a vehicle or appliance at the end of its useful service end-of-life vehicle noun a vehicle that has reached the end of its useful service and is subject to regulations for its disposal in order to avoid pollution endoparasite noun a parasite that lives inside its host. Compare ectoparasite endosperm noun a storage tissue in plant seeds that provides nourishment for the developing embryo endotherm noun an organism that is able to generate heat internally in order to raise its body temperature O Birds and mammals are endotherms. Compare ectotherm. Also called homoiotherm endothermic reaction noun a chemical reaction in which heat is removed from

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