bison noun US a type of large cattle found in North America, now largely restricted to protected areas because of hunting. Also called buffalo bitumen noun a solid hydrocarbon contained in coal. Also called tar bituminous coal noun coal containing a high percentage of tar bituminous sand, bituminous shale noun same as oil sand bivalve noun an invertebrate animal with a shell composed of two halves joined at one place. Bivalves such as oysters or mussels may live in fresh or salt water. black carbon noun carbon in the form of fine particles which rise in the smoke produced by the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, wood or oil black earth noun same as chernozem bladder noun 1. an inflated modified leaf of a plant that traps insects, e.g. bladder-wort, or an inflated fruit, e.g. senna pod 2. same as air bladder blade noun 1. a flattened part of a propeller, rotor or wind turbine 2. a thin flat leaf, e.g. a leaf of a grass, iris or daffodil blanket bog noun a wide area of marshy ground that may occur in lowland or upland areas (note: In the UK, they occur mainly at high altitude in the north and west.) blast noun the impact from an explosion O Thousands of people would be killed by the blast.
blast effect noun a result of the impact from an explosion, e.g. damage caused blaze noun a mark put on a tree to show that it needs to be felled or to indicate a path through a forest bleaching noun 1. the removal of colour by the action of a chemical or sunlight 2. a process in which coral loses its colour or loses its symbiotic algae O There have been several incidents of coral bleaching on reefs around Easter Island and northeastern Australia.
bleed verb 1. to exude blood or sap from a wound 2. to remove liquid or gas from a system blight noun 1. a disease caused by different fungi, that rapidly destroys a plant or plant part 2. □ (urban) blight excessive building development, or the occurrence of dilapidated and unattractive areas in a city or town ■ verb to ruin or spoil the environment O The landscape was blighted by open-cast mining.
blizzard noun a heavy snowstorm with wind, or lying snow which is blown by strong wind O There were blizzards in the highlands during the weekend. bloom noun a flower O The blooms on the orchids have been ruined by frost. ■ verb to flower O The plant blooms at night. O Some cacti only bloom once every seven years.
blow verb (of air or wind) to move O The sea breeze may blow almost parallel to the coast.
blow-by noun unburnt fuel mixed with air and other gases that escapes past the piston rings in an internal combustion engine blowhole noun 1. a hole in the roof of a cave by the sea, leading to the surface of the cliff above, through which air and water are sent out by the pressure of the waves breaking beneath 2. the nostril of a cetacean such as a whale, situated towards the back of the skull, through which the whale releases air and water blowout noun a sudden rush of oil or gas from an oil well blubber noun fat lying in a thick layer under the skin of marine animals such as whales blue flag beach noun a beach with sea water that meets the cleanliness requirements of the European Commission and has been awarded the symbol of a blue flag blue-green alga noun t cyanobacteri-um blue whale noun a large whale with no teeth, which feeds by straining large amounts of water through its baleen and so retaining plankton and other food board of inquiry noun a group of people who carry out a formal investigation when there has been an accident, or something has gone wrong
BOAT abbr byway open to all traffic BOD abbr 1. biochemical oxygen demand 2. biological oxygen demand O The main aim of sewage treatment is to reduce the BOD of the liquid.
body burden noun the amount of a chemical contained in a human or animal body bog noun soft wet land, usually with moss growing on it, which does not decompose, but forms a thick layer of acid peat (note: The mosses that grow on bogs live on the nutrients that fall in rain.) boggy adjective soft and wet like a bog bogland noun an area of bog boil verb to heat a liquid until it reaches a temperature at which it changes into gas bole noun the wide base of a tree trunk
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