birthrate purification of proteins or water, or in making food and pharmaceutical products biosolids plural noun a nutrient-rich organic material, solid or semi-solid before processing, that is derived from sewage as a product of wastewater treatment and used as a fertilizer biosphere noun same as ecosphere biosphere reserve noun an environmentally sensitive area with protected status managed primarily to preserve natural ecological conditions (note: Biosphere reserves may be open to tourists.) biospheric cycle noun a natural cyclical process that supports life on Earth, e.g. the oxygen cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle or water cycle biostimulation noun the addition of nutrients to polluted waste or ground in order to enhance the remedial activity of microorganisms biosynthesis noun the production of chemical compounds by a living organism biota noun the flora and fauna of a region biotechnology noun the use of biological processes in industrial production, e.g. the use of yeasts in making beer, bread or yoghurt. i> genetic modification biotic adjective referring to the living constituents of an environment. Compare abiotic biotic barrier noun a set of conditions which prevent members of a species moving to other regions biotic carrier potential noun an assessment of the maximum increase in the number of individuals in a species, not considering the effects of competition and natural selection biotic climax noun a plant community produced by a permanent influence or combination of influences of organisms, including people, e.g. woodland biotic community noun a community of organisms in a specific area biotic factor noun an organism that has an effect on a specific environment. Compare abiotic factor biotic index noun a scale for showing the quality of an environment by indicating the types of organisms present in it biotic potential noun same as biotic carrier potential biotic pyramid noun a graphical representation of the structure of an ecosystem in terms of which organism eats which. Also called ecological pyramid (note: The base is composed of producer organ isms, usually plants, then herbivores, then carnivores. It may be measured in terms of number, biomass or energy.) biotic succession noun the sequence of changes that takes place in the composition of a group of organisms under the influence of their changing environment biotope noun a small area with uniform biological conditions such as climate, soil or altitude biotroph noun a parasite which only feeds on living organisms. Compare necro-troph biotype noun a group of similar individuals within a species biphenyl noun a white or colourless crystalline substance, used as a fungicide, in the production of dyes and as a preservative applied to the skins of citrus fruit. Formula: C6H5C6H[[SUB]]5. (note: The preservative has E number E230.) birch noun a common hardwood tree found in northern temperate zones. Genus: Betula.

bird noun a warm-blooded animal that has wings, feathers and a beak and lays eggs 'Birds are sensitive to even small climate changes. For instance the North Atlantic Oscillation -the Atlantic's version of El NiƱo - has subtle effects on weather. These go unnoticed by most humans, but research shows that as the oscillation waxes and wanes, populations of larks and sandpipers rise and fall. (Climate Change, UK farmland birds and the global greenhouse. RSPB 2001)'

birder noun same as birdwatcher bird haven noun same as bird sanctuary bird of prey noun a bird that kills and eats other birds or small animals bird reserve noun same as bird sanctuary bird sanctuary noun a place where birds can breed and live in a protected environment

Birds directive noun a European Union directive relating to the conservation of all species of naturally occurring wild birds birdsong noun singing calls made by birds to communicate with each other birdwatcher noun a person who observes and studies birds as a leisure activity. Also called birder birdwatching noun observing and studying birds as a leisure activity birth noun the event of being born birthrate noun the number of births per year, shown per thousand of the population O a birthrate of 15 per thousand O There has been a severe decline in the birthrate.


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