Fish Farming Guide

Tilapia Farming Guide

The Tilapia Industry has an amazingly high demand in the United States. So high, in fact, that the United States has to import Tilapia from Thailand. The Industry makes about 5 billion dollars a year Even if you could get in on 1% of that industry, you'd be sitting on $50 million dollars. Tilapia farming is the wave of the future. NOW is the time to get in on that industry while the competition is low! J.T. Abney, author of the acclaimed book Shrimp Farming Guide now shares the secrets of Tilapia farming in his new book Tilapia Farming Guide. Abney is not selling a getrich-quick scam. His experience comes from a lifetime of work in the Gulf of Mexico, and generations of family experience working fishing and farming in the Gulf. His book covers all the bases on how to raise, feed, and make money off your Tilapia farm. His advice is real, professional advice. If you're looking to make money with no work, look elsewhere. If you want to work hard to get rich honestly, look to the Tilapia farms! Read more here...

Tilapia Farming Guide Summary


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Prospects of increased fish landings

In experiments during the 1950s, J.E. Shelbourne (1964) and his colleagues of the Lowestoft Fisheries Laboratory (UK) developed successful methods of rearing large numbers of young plaice by stocking the open circulation seawater tanks at the Marine Biological Station at Port Erin, Isle of Man, with plaice eggs spawned in captivity. Methods were devised for bulk preparation of suitable planktonic food for the developing larvae, mainly nauplii of Artemia salina. A measure of bacterial control was achieved by treating the water with antibiotics and ultraviolet light. In these conditions many thousands of young plaice have been reared to the completion of metamorphosis, and survival rates of over 30 per cent of the original egg stock have been achieved. However it became apparent in due course that the number of artificially reared fry that could conceivably be released into the sea each year is infinitesimal compared with the number produced naturally, and that no significant...

Mariculture requirements and methods

One of the most dramatic examples of recent growth in fish farming has been the exponential increase in the production of salmon in the North Atlantic region. Much of this expansion has been in the siting of floating fish farms in Scottish sea lochs (Lincoln and Howell, 1994 La Tene Maps, 1995). Fifteen years ago, such farms were a novelty. Now there are practically no sea lochs left which do not have at least one fish farm. Annual Scottish production of farmed salmon stands at around 50 000 tonnes whereas ten years ago it was only around 10 000 tonnes (SOAEFD annual surveys see Appendix 4). However, the greatest production in this region comes from Norwegian farms.

Increasing the fertility of the seas

If fish farming in enclosed bodies of seawater presents difficulties, why not simply raise the productivity of the open sea by enriching the surface waters over wide areas by the addition of plant nutrients We spread fertilizers on the land to promote the growth of crops why not spread them on the sea

Subjective versus objective index

AMBI is based upon ecological models proposed previously by several European ecologists. The theoretical basis is that of ecological adaptive strategies and the progressive response of benthic communities to increasing gradients of impact in stressed environments. The index requires classifying the species into five ecological groups (EGs), which are in relation to the different responses of benthic species to pollution or disturbance (from very sensitive to pollution to opportunistic responses). This pattern is related to the r, k, and t models. These models seem to have been greatly enhanced by the AMBI as a new tool. AMBI is a formula, that compares the proportion of the abundance of each EG within a sample, permitting the derivation of continuous values, which allows for further statistical analyses. Several thresholds in the AMBI scale were established based upon the proportions among the five EGs. These thresholds coincide with the benthic community health proposed by numerous...

Opportunities for Conserving Bonobos in the Lake Tumba Lake Maindombe Hinterland

Gallery forests in the Malebo region (26,520 km2) have been heavily logged in the last 25 years. Conflicts between industrial and or anarchical artisanal timber exploitation have created a sense of disaster amongst the people for fear of what might occur if the forests were gone. In response, WWF started a community conservation program to protect the bonobos in the remaining gallery forests. Activities include the conservation of wildlife in the region, using bonobos as the umbrella species while sensitizing local communities to the importance of preserving their natural resources. This involves finding alternative sources of both protein and income through activities such as fish culture, improved agriculture techniques, revalorization of non-timber forest products as prime sources of cash revenue, and ecotourism for the future. Under the traditional authority, the community conservation program is a scenario wherein conservation activities are planned by local

The Relation between the Eco Exergy to Empower Ratio and the Maximum Power and the Maximum Eco Exergy Principles

The fifth system was a fish-farming basin in the central part of the lagoon of Venice. Fish-farming basins consist of peripheral areas of lagoon surrounded by banks in which local species of fish and crustaceans are raised. Salt water from the sea and freshwater from canals and rivers are regulated by locks and drains. Control of water levels, salt content, and drainage toward the sea are part of an ancient tradition which is an economic and cultural heritage. In addition to that ecosystem the whole lagoon of Venice has been considered. Table 1 shows empower and eco-exergy density values and the ratio of eco-exergy to empower. It was observed that the natural lake (Caprolace) had a higher eco-exergy empower ratio than the control and waste ponds, due to a higher eco-exergy density and a lower emergy density. These observations were confirmed by the study of Lake Trasimeno. Figheri basin is an artificial ecosystem, but has many characteristics typical of natural systems. This depends...

Ecology As The Source Of Inspiration In Design

Ecological Engineering

John Todd has developed a unique wastewater treatment system, termed the living machine, which is the product of a long design history (Guterstam and Todd, 1990 Todd, 1988a, 1988b, 1990, 1991 Todd and Todd, 1994). The development of the design started at the New Alchemy Institute on Cape Cod, which Todd helped create in the early 1970s. The New Alchemy Institute was an organization devoted to developing and demonstrating integrated environmental technologies involving energy systems, architecture, and sustainable agriculture (Todd and Todd, 1980, see Chapter 9). One of the principal elements in these integrated systems was aquaculture. Especially with William McLarney and Ronald Zweig, Todd tried many configurations of fish culture tanks (McLarney and Todd, 1977 Zweig, 1986 Zweig et al., 1981). He settled on a large cylindrical tank (up to 1000 gal or 3790 l capacity)

Kalundborg As A Model The Kalundborg Complex Historical Evolution

At the heart of this system of arrangements is the Asnaes Power Station, the largest power plant in Denmark. Half of the Danish-owned power plant is fueled by coal and half by a new fuel called orimulsion, a bituminous product produced from Venezuelan tar sands. By exporting part of the formerly wasted energy, Asnaes has reduced the fraction of available energy directly discarded by about 80 per cent. Since 1981, the municipality of Kalundborg has eliminated the use of 3500 oil-fired residential furnaces by distributing heat from the power plant through a network of underground pipes. Homeowners pay for the piping, but receive cheap, reliable heat in return. The power plant also supplies cooling water that has been warmed 7-8 degrees in the process to supply an on-site fish farm producing about 200 tons of trout per year. Asnaes also delivers process steam to its neighbors, Novo Nordisk and Statoil. The Statoil refinery receives 15 per cent of its steam requirements while Novo Nordisk...


Cropping-off The harvesting (by humans or by natural predator or grazing) of a particular species, trophic level in a food chain, or link in a food web. For example, in fish farming, nitrogenous waste may be removed by allowing algae to grow on it, then adding fish that will remove the algae by eating them (i.e. cropping them off).


Dioxide in chemosynthetic reactions which parallel the photosynthetic processes of plants, but derive energy from inorganic chemical sources rather than from light. For instance, the bacteria Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter, which oxidize ammonia to nitrite and thence to nitrate, utilize the energy released by these reactions for synthesizing organic materials within their protoplasm. Beggiatoa and Thiobacillus are chemosynthetic autotrophs obtaining energy from oxidation of sulphide and sulphur. Beggiatoa can be seen as a white mat covering the sea-bed where conditions are anoxic, such as under floating fish farm cages. Oxidation of iron to the ferrous and thence the ferric form is another energy source for chemosynthesis. It is now known that primary production by bacterial chemosynthesis contributes a significant fraction of the food available at depths remote from the euphotic zone. Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities (see Section 6.4.4) are entirely dependent for their energy...

Eukaryotic Algae

Species of Euglena (fusoid, uniflagellate cells with red eyespot and with or without chloroplasts) are abundant where moisture, organic matter, and often ammonium are high, such as wet footprints in paddocks, puddles, ditches, and farm ponds. Facultative photoautotrophs, they can subsist as achlorophyllous heterotrophs. The nonphotosynthetic, phagotrophic Peranema also frequents similar habitats.


Emergy evaluation describes the relationship between human and natural systems. There have been many studies on this interaction here we chose one that assessed the environmental impact of a fish farm. Aquaculture has many interactions with the surrounding environment using resources and producing changes in the ecological system. The fish farm, in this application, is located in the Gulf of La Spezia (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean Sea). The installation called Spezzina fish farm is a marine inshore fish farm located at Punta Pezzino this area of Gulf of La Spezia is sheltered by the offshore breakwater and is thus characterized by a low circulation regime (Figure 5). Reared fish are mostly gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to a lesser extent. In the study only S. aurata production is considered in the emergy calculation. Figure 5 Spezzina fish farm geographical position and cages disposition. Reproduced by permission of Elsevier. Figure 5...

Technical Factors

Early links at Kalundborg tended to involve the sale of waste products without significant pre-treatment. This pattern includes the initial sale of Statoil's flue gas, Asnaes' sale of fly ash, clinker, waste heat and process steam, as well as the use of cooling water to heat fish farm ponds. These arrangements simply involved rerouting of what was formerly waste, without significant alteration. The more recent links, however, have been created by and depend on the application of pollution control technologies. These links, which comprise just over half of the interconnections, do not just move process by-products around. The processes and disposal practices are controlled to make them more environmentally benign and, at the same time, to render them more attractive as feedstocks. The gypsum stream from Asnaes is the output of the flue gas control operating to remove sulfur dioxide which is present at low concentrations and in a chemical form that is not useful directly. The...


On a local scale, freshwater fish culture has been practised from early times, in many parts of the world, particularly in the warmer areas. The Chinese were rearing carp 4000 years ago and in developed countries, before the advent of modern refrigeration techniques, the fish pond provided a ready source of fresh protein. Many, usually fast-growing, vegetarian species are cultivated in shallow ponds. The growth of suitable pond weed for their food is encouraged by enriching the water with sewage or organic refuse. Where sunshine keeps the water temperature high, biological processes proceed very rapidly and remarkably high rates of food production can be obtained from efficiently managed fish ponds. Capital and labour costs may be low, and land unsuitable for ordinary agriculture can often be profitably farmed in this way although there are often problems with water supply.


One of the problems of marine fish farming is to find suitable sources of fish food. During their early stages of growth, fish larvae require very small food particles and some take only live food. This need for bulk production of suitable planktonic foods adds to the other problems of fish farming. Even if live food is not essential, minced fish and similar finely divided foods are very prone to bacterial contamination and consequent detrimental effects. There is some hope that the invention of microcapsules as artificial food particles may prove to be a useful contribution to aquaculture. Precise mixtures of food materials suited to the requirements of particular organisms can now be encapsulated within artificial membranes, producing particles of controlled composition and size, some of which are readily accepted as food by certain small organisms or by filter feeders (Jones et al, 1974 1979). Many of the currently farmed finfish species around the world, especially those in Europe...


It seems probable that marine fish farming and shellfish culture may eventually become more widespread and intensive than at present. However, the economics of these enterprises seem mainly to require the production of high-priced species. Large additions to our food supplies are not yet possible from these sources.

The case studies

The sixth system is an artificial one, located in the central part of the Lagoon of Venice, i.e., the Figheri basin. Fish farming basins consist of peripheral areas of lagoon surrounded by banks in which local species of fish and crustaceans are raised. Salt water from the sea and freshwater from canals and rivers are regulated by locks and drains. The fishes of highest demand raised in basins are Dicentrarchus labrax (bass) and Sparus auratus. Various types of mullet are also raised, as well as eels and mollusks.

Otter nuisance

Frequently, death of otters at the hands of people is brought on to the animals by their own activities in some places they affect fisheries, or they take domestic fowl. Although, especially in Europe and North America, otters may have achieved remarkable popularity, in the not too distant past, say more 50 years ago, they were considered as vermin, no better than foxes, raccoons or polecats. They still are considered to be vermin in many developing countries. In ecological terms, otter nuisance is a manifestation of direct, interspecific competition between predators otters prey on the same species as humans do, and they interfere with fishing nets and fish farms. Anywhere in the world, fish farms may occasionally be visited by otters, if there are chinks in the armour of the ponds or of the floating fish cages, such as holes in the protective netting, or absence of anti-predator wiring, and substantial numbers of fish may be taken. Some types of fish farm are easy to protect, and...

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