Literature Cited

Aber J, Christensen N, Fernandez I, Franklin J, Hidinger L, Hunter M, MacMahon J, Mladenoff D, Pastor J, Perry D, Slangen R, van Miegroet H (2000) Applying ecological principles to management of the U.S. National Forests. Ecol Soc America, Washington, DC. Issues in Ecology, Number 6. 20 pp. Albert DA (1995) Regional landscape ecosystems of Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin: a working map and classification. USDA For Serv, St. Paul, Minnesota. Gen Tech Rep NC-178. Alig RJ, Butler BJ (2004) Projecting large-scale area changes in land use and land cover for terrestrial carbon analyses. Environ Manage 33:443-456. Armstrong GW (1999) A stochastic characterization of the natural disturbance regime of the boreal mixedwood forest with implications for sustainable forest management. Can J For Res 29:424-433. Bergeron Y, Harvey B (1997) Basing silviculture on natural ecosystem dynamics: an approach applied to the southern boreal mixedwood forest of Quebec. For Ecol Manage 92:235-242. Bunting SC, Kingery JL, Hemstrom MA, Schroeder MA, Gravenmier RA, Hann WJ (2005) Altered rangeland ecosystems in the Interior Columbia Basin. In: Quigley TM (tech ed) The Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project: Scientific Assessment. USDA For Serv, Pacific Northwest Res Stn, Portland. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-553. Chew JD, Stalling C, Moeller K (2004) Integrating knowledge for simulating vegetation change at landscape scales. West J Appl For 19:102-108.

Cissel JH, Swanson FJ, Grant GE, Olson DH, Gregory SV, Garman SL, Ashkenas LR, Hunter MG, Kertis JA, Mayo JH, McSwain MD, Swetland SG, Swindle KA, Wallin DO (1998) A landscape plan based on historical fire regimes for a managed forest ecosystem: the Augusta Creek Study. USDA For Serv, Pacific Northwest Res Stn, Portland. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-422.

Cleland DT, Crow TR, Saunders SC, Dickmann DI, Maclean AL, Jordan JK, Watson RL, Sloan AM, Brosofske KD (2004) Characterizing historical and modern fire regimes in Michigan (USA): a landscape ecosystem approach. Landscape Ecol 19:311-325.

Crow TR (2002) Putting multiple use and sustained yield into a landscape context. In: Liu J, Taylor WW (eds) Integrating landscape ecology into natural resource management. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 349-365.

Crow TR (2005) Landscape ecology and forest management. In: Wiens J, Moss M (eds) Issues and perspectives in landscape ecology. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 201-207.

Crow TR, Gustafson EJ (1997) Ecosystem management: managing natural resources in time and space. In: Kohm K, Franklin JF (eds) Creating a forestry for the 21st century, the science of ecosystem management. Island Press, Washington, pp 215-228.

Diaz NM (2004) Northwest Forest Plan. In: Gucinski H, Miner C, Bittner B (eds) Proceedings: Views from the ridge—considerations for planning at the landscape scale. USDA For Serv, Portland. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-596, pp 87-92.

Dwyer JF, Childs GM (2004) Movement of people across the landscape: a blurring of distinctions between areas, interests, and issues affecting natural resource management. Landscape Urban Planning 69:153-164.

Emanuel WR, Killough GG, Post SM, Shugart HH (1984) Modeling terrestrial ecosystems in the global carbon cycle with shifts in carbon storage capacity by land-use change. Ecology 65:970-983.

FEMAT (1993) Forest ecosystem management: an ecological, economic, and social assessment. Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team [USDA For Serv, USDI Fish and Wildlife Service, USDI National Park Service, USDI Bureau of Land Management, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Services, Environmental Protection Agency], Portland.

Finney MA (1999) Mechanistic modeling of landscape fire patterns. In: Mladenoff DJ, Baker WL (eds) Spatial modeling of forest landscape change, approaches and applications. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 186-209.

Forman RTT (1995) Land mosaics, the ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK.

Forman RTT, Alexander LE (1998) Roads and their major ecological effects. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 29:207-231.

Forman RTT, Sperling D, Bissonette JA, Clevenger AP, Cutshall CD, Dale VH, Fahrig L, France R, Goldman CR, Heanue K, Jones JA, Swanson FJ, Turrentine T, Winter TC (2003) Road ecology, science and solutions. Island Press, Washington.

Franklin JF, Forman RTT (1987) Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: ecological consequences and principles. Landscape Ecol 1:5-18.

GAO (2000) Report to Congressional Requestors. Forest Service planning. Better integration of broad-scale assessments into forest plans is needed. United States General Accounting Office, Washington. GA0/RCED-00-56.

Gardner RH, Romme WH, Turner MG (1999) Predicting forest fire effects at landscape scales. In: Mladenoff DJ, Baker WL (eds) Spatial modeling of forest landscape change, approaches and applications. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK, pp 163-185.

Gilmore DW, Palik BJ, Benzie JW (2004) A revised management guide for red pine. Joint Publication, USDA For Serv and Univ Minnesota, St. Paul.

Gobster PH, Rickenbach MG (2004) Private forestland parcelization and development in Wisconsin's Northwoods: perceptions of resource-oriented stakeholders. Landscape Urban Planning 69:165-182.

Gustafson EJ, Crow TR (1996) Simulating the effects of alternative forest management strategies on landscape structure. J Environ Manage 46:77-94.

Gustafson EJ, Rasmussen LV (2002) HARVEST for Windows: user's guide. USDA For Serv, North Central Res Stn, St. Paul, Minnesota. (http://www.ncrs.fs.fed.us/4153/harvest/v60/v6_0.asp)

Gustafson EJ, Sturtevant BR, Fall A (2006) A collaborative, iterative approach to transferring modeling technology to land managers. In: Perera AH, Buse LJ, Crow TR (eds) Forest landscape ecology: transferring knowledge to practice. Springer, New York.

Hammer RB, Stewart SI, Winkler RL, Radeloff VC, Voss PR (2004) Characterizing dynamic spatial and temporal residential density patterns from 1940-1990 across the North Central United States. Landscape Urban Planning 69:183-199.

Hann WJ, Jones JL, Karl MG, Hessburg PF, Keane RE, Long DG, Menakis JP, McNicoll CH, Leonard SG, Gravenmier RA, Smith BG (1997) An assessment of landscape dynamics of the Basin. In: Quigley TM, Arbelbide SJ (eds) An assessment of ecosystem components in the Interior Columbia Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins, Volume 2. USDA For Serv, Pacific Northwest Res Stn, Portland. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-405, pp 363-1055.

Hansen AJ, Neilson RP, Dale VH, Flather CH, Iverson LR, Currie DJ, Shafer S, Cook R, Bartlein PJ (2001) Global change in forests: responses of species, communities, and biomes. BioScience 51:765-779.

Harper SC, Falk LL, Rankin EW 1990. The northern forest lands study of New England and New York. USDA For Serv, Rutland, Vermont.

Haynes RW, Graham RT, Quigley TM (1998) A framework for ecosystem management in the Interior Columbia Basin. J For 96:4-9.

He HS, Shang BZ, Crow TR, Gustafson EJ, Shifley SR (2004a) Simulating forest fuel and fire risk dynamics across landscapes—LANDIS fuel module design. Ecol Model 180:135-151.

He HS, Shifley SR, Dijak W, Gustafson EJ (2004b) Simulating the effects of forest fire and timber harvesting on the hardwood species of central Missouri. In: Perera AJ, Buse LJ, Weber MG (eds) Emulating natural forest landscape disturbances. Concepts and applications. Columbia Univ Press, New York, pp 123-134.

Heilman GE Jr, Strittholt JR, Slosser NC, Dellasala DA (2002) Forest fragmentation of the conterminous United States: assessing forest intactness through road density and spatial characteristics. BioScience 52:411-422.

Hessburg PF, Agee JK (2003) An environmental narrative of Inland Northwest U.S. forests, 1800-1999. In: Fire and aquatic ecosystems, special feature. For Ecol Manage 178:23-59.

Hessburg PF, Smith BG, Kreiter SG, Miller CA, Salter RB, McNicoll CH, Hann WJ (1999) Historical and current forest and range landscapes in the Interior Columbia River Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins, Part 1: Linking vegetation patterns and landscape vulnerability to potential insect and pathogen disturbances. USDA For Serv Portland. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-458.

Hessburg PF, Reynolds KM, Salter RB, Richmond MB (2004) Using a decision support system to estimate departures of present forest landscape patterns from historical reference conditions. In: Perera AJ, Buse LJ, Weber MG (eds) Emulating natural forest landscape disturbances. Concepts and applications. Columbia Univ Press, New York, pp 158-175.

Jensen ME, Bourgeron PS (eds) (2001) A guidebook for integrated ecological assessments. SpringerVerlag, New York.

Johnson KN, Swanson F, Herring M, Greene S (eds) (1999) Bioregional assessments: science at the crossroads of management and policy. Island Press, Washington.

Keane RE, Parsons R, Hessburg PF (2002) Estimating historical range and variation of landscape patch dynamics: limitations of the simulation approach. Ecol Model 151:29-49.

Landres PB, Morgan P, Swanson FJ (1999) Overview of the use of natural variability concepts in managing ecological systems. Ecol Appl 9:1179-1188.

Lee DC, Sedell JR, Rieman BE, Thurow RF, Williams JE (1997) Broad-scale assessment of aquatic species and habitats. In: Quigley TM, Arbelbide SJ (eds) An assessment of ecosystem components in the Interior Columbia Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins, Volume 2. USDA For Serv, Pacific Northwest Res Stn, Portland. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-405.

Li H, Franklin JF, Swanson FJ, Spies TA (1993) Developing alternative forest cutting patterns: a simulation approach. Landscape Ecol 8:63-75.

Lindenmayer DB, Franklin JF (2002) Conserving forest biodiversity, a comprehensive multiscaled approach. Island Press, Washington.

Lint JB (tech coord) (2005) Northwest Forest Plan—the first 10 years (1994-2003): status and trend of northern spotted owl populations and habitat. USDA For Serv, Pacific Northwest Res Stn, Portland. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-648.

Liu J, Taylor WW (eds) (2002) Integrating landscape ecology into natural resource management. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK.

Loehle C (2004) Applying landscape principles to fire hazard reduction. For Ecol Manage 198:261-267.

Lytle DE, Cornett MW, Harkness MS (2006) Transferring landscape ecological knowledge in a multipartner landscape: the Border Lakes region of Minnesota and Ontario. In: Perera AH, Buse LJ, Crow TR (eds) Forest landscape ecology: transferring knowledge to practice. Springer, New York.

McGaughey RJ (1998) Techniques for visualizing the appearance of forestry operations. J For 96:9-14.

McRae DJ, Duchesne LC, Freedman B, Lynham TJ, Woodley S (2001) Comparisons between wildfire and forest harvesting and their implications to forest management. Environ Rev 9:223-260.

Mehmood SR, Zhang D (2001) Forest parcelization in the United States: a study of contributing factors. J For 99:30-34.

Moeur M, Spies TA, Hemstrom MA, Alegria J, Browning J, Cissel JH, Cohen WB, Demeo TE, Healy S, Warbington R (2005) The Northwest Forest Plan—the first ten years (1994-2003): status and trends of late-successional and old-growth forests. USDA For Serv, Pacific Northwest Res Stn, Portland. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-646.

Muhar A (2001) Three-dimensional modeling and visualization of vegetation for landscape simulation. Landscape Urban Planning 54:5-17.

Neilson RP (1995) A model for predicting continental-scale vegetation distribution and water balance. Ecol Appl 5:362-385.

Pennock DJ, van Kessel C (1997) Effect of agriculture and of clear-cut forest harvest on landscape-scale soil organic carbon storage in Saskatchewan. Can J Soil Sci 77:211-218.

Perera AH, Buse LJ, Weber MG (eds) (2004) Emulating natural forest landscape disturbances. Concepts and applications. Columbia Univ Press, New York.

Quigley TM, Arbelbide SJ (eds) (1997) An assessment of ecosystem components in the Interior Columbia Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. Volume 2. USDA For Serv, Pacific Northwest Res Stn, Portland. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-405.

Quigley TM, Haynes RW, Graham RT (eds) (1996) Integrated scientific assessment for ecosystem management in the Interior Columbia Basin and portions of the Klamath and Great Basins. USDA For Serv, Pacific Northwest Res Stn, Portland. Gen Tech Rep PNW-GTR-382.

Rieman BE, Lee DC, Thurow RF, Hessburg PF, Sedell JR (2000) Toward an integrated classification of ecosystems: defining opportunities for managing fish and forest health. Environ Manage 25:425-444.

Riitters KH, Wickham JD (2003) How far to the nearest road? Front Ecol Environ 1:125-129.

Riitters K, Wickham J, O'Neill R, Jones B, Smith ER (2000) Global-scale patterns of forest fragmentation. Conserv Ecol 4(2):3. (http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss2/art3)

Riitters KH, Wickham JD, O'Neill RV, Jones KB, Smith ER, Coulston JW, Wade TG, Smith JH (2002) Fragmentation of continental United States forests. Ecosystems 5:815-822.

Schulte LA, Mladenoff DJ (2001) The original US public land survey records: their use and limitations in reconstructing presettlement vegetation. J For 99:5-10.

Schulte LA, Crow TR, Vissage J, Cleland DT (2003) Seventy years of forest change in the northern Great Lakes Region, USA. In: Buse L, Perera A (comps), Proceedings, Regional Forestry Forum. Ont Min Nat Resour, Ont For Res Inst, Sault Sainte Marie, Ont For Res Inf Pap Number 155, pp 99-101.

Shang BZ, He HS, Crow TR, Shifley SR (2004) Fuel load reductions and fire risk in central hardwood forests of the United States: a spatial simulation study. Ecol Model 180:89-102.

Spellerberg IF (1998) Ecological effects of roads and traffic: a literature review. Global Ecol Biogeogr 7:317-333.

Spies TA (1998) Coastal landscape analysis and modeling study (CLAMS) program report. Oregon State Univ, Corvallis.

Spies TA, Ripple WJ, Bradshaw GA (1994) Dynamics and pattern of a managed coniferous forest landscape in Oregon. Ecol Appl 4:555-568.

Stewart WP, Liebert D, Larkin KW (2004) Community identities as visions for landscape change. Landscape Urban Planning 69:315-334.

Swanson FJ, Franklin JF, Sedell JR (1997) Landscape patterns, disturbance, and management in the Pacific Northwest, USA. In: Zonneveld IS, Forman RTT (eds) Changing landscapes: an ecological perspective. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 191-213.

Swetnam TW, Betancourt JL (1990) Fire-southern oscillation relations in the southwestern United States. Science 249:1017-1020.

Trombulak SC, Frissell CA (2000) Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conserv Biol 14:18-30.

USDA Forest Service (2001) 2000 RPA assessment of forest and range lands. USDA For Serv, Washington. FS-687.

Wade TG, Riitters KH, Wickham JD, Jones KB (2003) Distribution and causes of global forest fragmentation. Conserv Ecol 7(2):7. (http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol7/iss2/art7/)

Wallin DO, Swanson FJ, Marks B, Cissel JH, Kertis J (1996) Comparison of managed and pre-settlement landscape dynamics in forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA. For Ecol Manage 85:291-309.

Wang X, Song B, Chen J, Zheng D, Crow TR (2006) Visualizing forest landscapes using public data sources. Landscape Urban Planning 75: 111-124.

Wear DN, Greis JG (2002) Southern Forest Resource Assessment, summary of findings. J For 100:6-14.

Wear DN, Greis JG (2003) The Southern Forest Resource Assessment: final report. USDA For Serv, Southern Res Stn, Asheville, North Carolina. (www.srs.fs.fed.us/sustain/report/index.htm)

Wiens JA, Moss MR (2005) Issues and perspectives in landscape ecology. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK.

Wimberly MC, Spies TA, Nonaka E (2004) Using criteria based on the natural fire regime to evaluate forest management in the Oregon Coast Range of the United States. In: Perera AH, Buse LJ, Weber MG (eds) Emulating natural forest landscape disturbances. Concepts and applications. Columbia Univ Press, New York, pp 146-157.

Zasada JC, Palik BJ, Crow TR, Gilmore DW (2004) Emulating natural forest disturbance, applications for silvicultural systems in the northern Great Lakes region of the United States. In: Perera AH, Buse LJ, Weber MG (eds) Emulating natural forest landscape disturbances. Concepts and applications. Columbia Univ Press, New York, pp 230-242.

Zuuring HR, Wood WL, Jones JG (1995) Overview of MAGIS: a multi-resource analysis and geographic information system. USDA For Serv, Intermountain Res Stn, Ogden, Utah. Res Note INT-RN-427.

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment