Insect Attacks on Southern Pines

Insects harvest more southern pine timber than man and fire together. A group of bark beetles takes the blame for most of the damage. Some are primary sources of injury, destroying stems that otherwise appear healthy. Secondary insect attacks occur when fire, fungi, or vegetative competition for soil moisture, nutrients, and light weaken trees. The more common include the southern pine beetle, the Ips bark beetle, and the turpentine beetle. The initial attraction of insects to certain trees is...

Root Grafts

Although natural root grafts between white pine trees stimulate growth of residual stems following thinning, the prevalence of such grafts is unknown. As roots of harvested stems continue to absorb soil moisture and nutrients and to compete with pioneer vegetation endeavoring to become established, growth improves for residual stems grafted to a harvested tree. Thus, water consumption by residual trees adjacent to openings in a canopy made by thinning keeps such clearings relatively barren of...

Shortleaf Pine

There is no typical site for shortleaf pine. Like most forest trees, it grows best on moist but well-drained, or mesic, sites. While occurring with many other species, shortleaf pine also grows in pure stands from the West Gulf Coastal Plain to the northeastern extremity of the region. Often, this pine is the initial tree to seed-in on old fields freshly abandoned from agriculture. Favorable weather must accompany good seed crops for this to occur. Oaks, as a rule, enter old-field stands when...

Eastern redcedar

Eastern redcedar, not a true cedar but a juniper, predominates in part of the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and the glades of the Nashville Basin in central Tennessee. The Cedar Brakes of central Texas consist of closely related species, Ashe and Pinchot junipers. These Juniperus species are among the most alkali-tolerant of drought-hardy trees.27 Eastern redcedar is of course not limited to these calcareous outcrop areas. It occurs in the dominant canopy and in the understory of almost every...

The Regions Forests

Florida Pine Scrub

Biotic factors influencing the forest involve animals insects, birds, mammals, etc. , plants fungi, competing vegetation, etc. , and, of course, the trees themselves. In this book, trees are our principal concern, though other biotic components play significant roles in the development of forests. More than 60 forest-cover types have been recognized by the Society of American Foresters as occurring in the South. These are generally grouped into nine classes. The oak-hickory-pine type, the most...

Disruptions To The Coastal Plain

Loessal Mississippi

The Mississippi Delta A physiographic feature that breaks into the general pattern of the Gulf Coastal Plain is the lower alluvial valley of the Mississippi River, called the Delta locally and in forestry literature. It interrupts the prevailing east-west orientation of the Coastal Plain with a north-south strip of alluvial soils bearing distinctive bottomland hardwood forests. Pioneering settlers seemed to have had an understanding of world geography, especially the similarity of the lower...

The Highlands

Physiography Moving from east to west, upon leaving the Piedmont province one encounters the Blue Ridge and the Ridge and Valley provinces, and the Appalachian plateaus. The Blue Ridge Mountains, a belt 5 to 80 miles wide, extends from beyond the northern extremity of the southern Appalachians in Virginia southward to Georgia. This is the province through which passes the Appalachian Trail, the uninterrupted footpath from Maine's Mt. Katahdin to Springer Mountain in Georgia.12 This is also the...