Baldcypress

Baldcypress14 was recognized by early observers with fascination. Lyell, the pioneering botanical explorer, said the species gave a somber tone to scenery when hung with moss.''15 Its ghostlike appearance in winter, without foliage (thus bald), conjures a foretaste of gloom. Unique among the South's needleleaf trees because of its deciduous nature, baldcypress grows in luxurious stands along the red rivers that originate in the Piedmont and mountains and, from those regions, carry silt and clay...

Sweetgum

Second-growth sweetgum in alluvial soils of the South usually occurs in fully stocked, relatively pure, even-aged stands. If seeds are available, stands develop within 10 years of clearcutting. Trees of this species exhibit vigor those of high vigor exceed 3 inches dbh growth in 10 years, those of medium vigor between 2 and 3 inches, while low vigor stems have less than a 2-inch increment during the period. These vigor classes, however, apply only to trees 16 inches dbh or greater. Vigor can...

Species Overview

Ten hard, or yellow, pines occur in the southern United States. The four species most important commercially are shortleaf, loblolly, longleaf, and slash pines. In this order, their ranges generally occur from north to south within the region. Other yellow pines of the South are Virginia, pitch, pond, sand, spruce, and table-mountain. (Eastern white pine, confined in the South mostly to the Appalachian Mountains, is a soft pine. For that and other botanical reasons it is not classified as a...

Insect Attacks on Southern Pines

Insects harvest more southern pine timber than man and fire together. A group of bark beetles takes the blame for most of the damage. Some are primary sources of injury, destroying stems that otherwise appear healthy. Secondary insect attacks occur when fire, fungi, or vegetative competition for soil moisture, nutrients, and light weaken trees. The more common include the southern pine beetle, the Ips bark beetle, and the turpentine beetle. The initial attraction of insects to certain trees is...

Root Grafts

Although natural root grafts between white pine trees stimulate growth of residual stems following thinning, the prevalence of such grafts is unknown. As roots of harvested stems continue to absorb soil moisture and nutrients and to compete with pioneer vegetation endeavoring to become established, growth improves for residual stems grafted to a harvested tree. Thus, water consumption by residual trees adjacent to openings in a canopy made by thinning keeps such clearings relatively barren of...

Shortleaf Pine

There is no typical site for shortleaf pine. Like most forest trees, it grows best on moist but well-drained, or mesic, sites. While occurring with many other species, shortleaf pine also grows in pure stands from the West Gulf Coastal Plain to the northeastern extremity of the region. Often, this pine is the initial tree to seed-in on old fields freshly abandoned from agriculture. Favorable weather must accompany good seed crops for this to occur. Oaks, as a rule, enter old-field stands when...

Eastern redcedar

Eastern redcedar, not a true cedar but a juniper, predominates in part of the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and the glades of the Nashville Basin in central Tennessee. The Cedar Brakes of central Texas consist of closely related species, Ashe and Pinchot junipers. These Juniperus species are among the most alkali-tolerant of drought-hardy trees.27 Eastern redcedar is of course not limited to these calcareous outcrop areas. It occurs in the dominant canopy and in the understory of almost every...

The Regions Forests

Florida Pine Scrub

Biotic factors influencing the forest involve animals insects, birds, mammals, etc. , plants fungi, competing vegetation, etc. , and, of course, the trees themselves. In this book, trees are our principal concern, though other biotic components play significant roles in the development of forests. More than 60 forest-cover types have been recognized by the Society of American Foresters as occurring in the South. These are generally grouped into nine classes. The oak-hickory-pine type, the most...

Disruptions To The Coastal Plain

Loessal Mississippi

The Mississippi Delta A physiographic feature that breaks into the general pattern of the Gulf Coastal Plain is the lower alluvial valley of the Mississippi River, called the Delta locally and in forestry literature. It interrupts the prevailing east-west orientation of the Coastal Plain with a north-south strip of alluvial soils bearing distinctive bottomland hardwood forests. Pioneering settlers seemed to have had an understanding of world geography, especially the similarity of the lower...