Eastern White Pine

Gifford Pinchot, the father of American forestry, claimed the eastern white pine plantations on the Biltmore Estate in North Carolina to be "the first practical application of forest management in the United States." Plantings there from as early as 1890 today remain principal sources of information on the long-term management of this species in the South. While white pine has been successfully introduced in areas as remote from the species' natural range as southeast Georgia, its treatment here is limited to its geographical habitat in the Southern Appalachian Mountains.1

Eastern white pine, in contrast to the hard and yellow pines, is characterized by its soft wood. In contrast, too, white pines are uninodal, developing one whorl of branches each year. The cones of both groups require 2 years to mature from the time of primordia initiation.

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