Coda 5 Vertical And Horizontal Evolution

The scope of this book is to quantify the evolution by a translation of Darwin's theory to thermodynamics. The expectation was that a thermodynamic interpretation of the evolution would give us a new perception and new images of the evolution. The expectations have been fulfilled as it can be seen from the conclusions in the Sections Coda 1-Coda 4.

In addition to the thermodynamic conclusive picture of the evolution drawn in Sections Coda 1-Coda 4, it would be interesting to see to what extent the vertical and the horizontal evolution are coupled and work together. Figures Coda 1 and Coda 2 have plotted the vertical evolution versus the horizontal evolution. The vertical evolution is expressed by the eco-exergy of the most advanced organisms in both figures, while the horizontal evolution is expressed as eco-exergy ascendency in Figure Coda 1 and as the total eco-exergy sustained by the ecological networks in Figure Coda 2.

Both figures show that the vertical and the horizontal evolution have followed the same trends, because the two plots are approximately linear. There is, however, a tendency to a faster vertical evolution up to 330 million years ago, particularly after the Cambrian Explosion, followed by a faster horizontal evolution up to about 100 million years ago. A possible explanation could be that a high species richness has to be evolved before the organisms can be used as components in a more effective ecological network.

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Eco-exergy in MJ/g for the most advanced organisms

Figure Coda 1 The vertical evolution as eco-exergy in MJ/g in the most advanced organisms is plotted versus the horizontal evolution as eco-exergy ascendency in kJ/m2.

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o c 80,000

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Eco-exergy of the most advanced organisms in MJ/g

Figure Coda 2 The vertical evolution as eco-exergy in MJ/g in the most advanced organisms is plotted versus the horizontal evolution as eco-exergy sustained by the ecological networks in kJ based on a solar radiation input of 10 kJ.

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Eco-exergy of the most advanced organims in MJ/g

Figure Coda 3 The eco-exergy of the most advanced organisms is plotted versus the eco-exergy flow rate. The rapid increase of the flow rate, particularly after the Cambrian Explosion and the last about 65 million years, must be due to a synergistic effect of all the factors promoting the evolution.

Figure Coda 3 shows a similar plot for the correlation between eco-exergy of the most advanced organisms and the eco-exergy flow rate as a result of the evolution.

Clearly, the plot in Figure Coda 3 indicates an exponential increase of the eco-exergy flow rate relative to the eco-exergy of the most advanced organisms. The increase of the eco-exergy flow rate has been particularly rapid as a result of the Cambrian Explosion and since the birds and the mammals became dominant. The vertical evolution, the horizontal evolution, the increase in captured solar radiation, the increase in information and the ability of the most advanced organisms and the network synergism have worked together to yield a very high eco-exergy flow rateā€”or it may be denoted eco-exergy power. The result is an enormous increase in the ability of the organisms and the entire ecological network to utilize the environment. The result shows the importance of both the vertical and the horizontal evolution and all the three growth forms. All the factors promoting the evolution have worked together to yield this enormous increase in the utilization of the environment by the organisms and the entire ecological network.

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