What Is Grassland

The most intensively studied grasslands are those of Northern Europe and North America, and this review will focus mainly on these habitats. However, it is apposite to provide an overview of the global diversity of grassland systems and how they differ from the other main habitat types. Globally, grassland habitats cover ca. 20 of the terrestrial land area (Swift et al., 1979 Parton et al., 1995), occurring mainly where low or seasonal rainfall (250-1,500 mm year-1) has prevented the...

Miettinen O. Mycologie

Abscission Needles

Developing Tools for Assessing Fungal Interest in Habitats. 1 Beech Woodland Saprotrophs. English Nature, Report No. 597. English Nature, Peterborough, UK. Allmeer, J., Vasiliauskas, R., Ihrmark, K., Stenlid, J. and Dahlberg, A. 2005 . Wood-inhabiting fungal communities in woody debris of Norway Spruce Picea abies L. Karst. , as reflected by sporocarps, mycelial isolations and T-RFLP identification. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 55, 57-67. Anonymous. 2004 . Reserve...

Effects Of Nitrogen Addition On Litter Basidiomycetes

Forests are increasingly affected by nitrogen inputs from air pollutants. Several studies have focused on the effects of nitrogen additions from fertilizer or actual or simulated air pollutants on litter decomposition in tropical Hobbie and Vitousek, 2000 as well as temperate forests Magill and Aber, 1988 Berg and Matzner, 1997 Carreiro et al, 2000 Schroter et al., 2003 Gallo et al, 2004 Waldrop et al., 2004 Chapter 10 . High nitrogen concentrations can have paradoxical effects on litter...

Modes of Dispersal

As a habitat dead wood is characterized by i the limited duration of each habitat patch e.g. a fallen trunk and ii an unpredictable and heterogeneous distribution of habitat patches in space and time, influenced by twigs and branches falling, natural tree mortality factors e.g. storms, drought and in recent centuries by forest management cycles and landscape fragmentation. To persist in this highly dynamic context wood decay fungi need to be able to spread between sinking and rising habitat...

Effects On Invertebrate Behaviour

A wide range of volatile organic compounds VOCs , including alcohols, terpe-nes, aldehydes, ketones, sesquiterpenes and aromatics, are produced by Basiomycota fruit bodies Faldt et al., 1999 Rosecke et al., 2000 , mycelium Hynes et al., 2007 and decomposing organic resources Cole et al., 1989 , and often increase in quantity and quality if physically damaged Stadler and Sterner, 1998 Faldt et al., 1999 or during inter-specific mycelial interactions Hynes et al., 2007 Chapter 7 . Likewise,...

Approaches For Studying The Community

Many studies of wood-decay fungi have been based on what is fruiting on the surface. The advantage of such observations is that a large number of woody units can be surveyed in a relatively short time. Further, fruiting reflects the reproductive output and thereby represents an important aspect of fitness. However, there are several reasons why studies solely based on fruiting structures will only give a partial view of the composition, activity and importance of the fungal community involved...

Direct Positive Effects Of Basidiomycota On Invertebrates Fruit Bodies And Mycelia As Food And Habitat

Mycelia are highly nutritious Swift and Boddy, 1984 see below . Not surprisingly, therefore, many invertebrates use fungi as a food source, either grazing directly on mycelia or fruit bodies, or indirectly by ingesting mycelium within decomposing litter Maraun et al., 2003 . Mycophagy is most prevalent amongst members of the phylum Arthropoda, although there are also many examples within the Mollusca, Enchytraeidae, Annelida, Collembola and Nematoda. For example, nematodes in the genus...