Basidiomycete Community Development in Temperate Angiosperm Wood

Lynne Boddy and Jacob Heilmann-Clausen

Contents

1.

Introduction

212

2.

Fungal Strategies in Decaying Wood

213

2.1 Modes of Dispersal

213

2.2 Life-History Strategies

218

2.3 Predecessor-Successor Relationships

220

3.

Dead Wood as a Habitat for Wood Decay Fungi

220

3.1 Microclimate

220

3.2 Factors Influencing Microclimatic Regimes in Dead Wood

221

3.3 Tree Species and Composition of Fungal Communities

222

3.4 Effects of Soil Type on Wood Decay Fungi

222

4.

Community Development Pathways

224

4.1 Colonization Strategies in Living Trees

224

4.2 Decay in Attached Branches

226

4.3 Decay in Standing Dead Trunks

226

4.4 Colonization Strategies in Fallen Wood

227

4.5 Decay in Felled Logs and Large Branches

227

4.6 Decay in Fallen Twigs and Small Branches

230

4.7 Decay in Stumps, Buried and Submerged Wood

230

References

231

Abstract The wide variety of dead wood habitats supports a wide variety of spe cialized fungi, which globally may exceed 100,000 species. Of these the majority of known taxa are Basidiomycota. They exhibit a wide variety of strategies to gain and hold territory within wood, defined by their mode of dispersal, establishment, competitive ability and adaptation to disturbance and stress factors. Many habitat factors affect community composition and development, both exogenous, e.g. microclimatic regime, and endogenous, e.g. interspecific interactions. Initial microenvironmental factors—at one extreme high stress and at the other extreme absence of abiotic stress—are major determinants of the communities that establish. Following initial

British Mycological Society Symposia Series © 2008 The British Mycological Society

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

establishment, community development is influenced by four main driving forces: stress aggravation (worsening of abiotic environmental conditions), stress alleviation (improvement in abiotic conditions), disturbance and combat (interspecific competition for space rather than directly for nutrients). The ecological strategies adopted by wood decay Basidiomycota, habitat factors influencing community development and community development pathways are discussed in relation to angiosperm wood.

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