The occurrence of bacteria living in eukaryotic tissues or cells is well known for both plants and animals (Hoffmeister and Martin, 2003). The type of interaction that these endobacteria have with their host ranges from parasitism to mutualism. Much less attention has been given to bacteria living inside fungi. An exception to this, is the research of Bonfante and co-workers on endobacteria of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Bianciotto and Bonfante, 2002). The endobacteria of AM fungi, which belong to the genus Glomeribacter, cannot be cultured, indicating an obligate dependence on their hosts.

The work on endobacteria of AM fungi has triggered investigations on the occurrence of endobacteria in other fungi. Recent reports indicate the presence of endobacteria in ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes (Bertaux et al., 2005; Izumi et al., 2006). However, so far, there are no reports of endobacteria in litter- or wood-degrading basidiomycetes. As Lumini et al. (2006) pointed out, actual proof of the possession of endobacteria is not easily given. In particular, in field samples where mycelium can consist of younger and older parts, bacteria may enter damaged hyphae. These bacteria are then inside hyphae, but they are not true endobacteria.

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