Fruit Body Survival

and the remnants of the lysed cells aggregated around and between the remaining living hyphal cells. Most of the stem hyphae became empty cylinders. After 36 days, electron microscopy showed that most of the cells throughout the fruit body were severely degenerated and malformed, yet a number of basidia and subhymenial cells remained intact and alive even at 36 days. Interestingly, when mushrooms were cultivated using conventional commercial farming procedures, ~50% of the fruit bodies were infected by Trichoderma harzianum and/or Pseudomonas tolaasi by 18 days. All such fruit bodies died at 24 days due to generalised severe bacterial and fungal infections leading to tissue necrosis and decay of the caps and stems.

Observations of a wild troop of Clitocybe nebularis in a garden in Stockport, Cheshire, began on 21 October 2006, at which time the fruit bodies were young, but close to maturity (5 cm diameter), and continued for 29 days (Figure 6). By 19

November 18

Figure 6 Life and death of Clitocybe nebularis fruit bodies in a suburban garden in Stockport, Autumn 2006. Observations began on 21 October and continued for 29 days to 19 November. Troops of fruit bodies of Coprinus micaceus emerged, matured and decayed ~26 October and November 1 (the latter are illustrated). Some disturbance and grazing (squirrels?) was evident on 10 November, and collapsed fruit bodies by 18 November.

November 18

Figure 6 Life and death of Clitocybe nebularis fruit bodies in a suburban garden in Stockport, Autumn 2006. Observations began on 21 October and continued for 29 days to 19 November. Troops of fruit bodies of Coprinus micaceus emerged, matured and decayed ~26 October and November 1 (the latter are illustrated). Some disturbance and grazing (squirrels?) was evident on 10 November, and collapsed fruit bodies by 18 November.

November most of the fruit bodies were beginning to collapse. These basidio-mata of C. nebularis were still actively releasing spores on 7/8 and 12/13 November, clearly indicating that agarics with large fruit bodies can distribute spores for 3-4 weeks, though viability was not tested. During the observation of C. nebularis, two troops of fruit bodies of Coprinus micaceus emerged, matured and decayed (^26 October and 1 November), illustrating the alternative (R-selected) strategy of rapid production of short-lived fruit bodies.

The longevity of fruit bodies is obviously important for dispersal, but so also is the period over which spores are actively produced and released, and the viability/germinability of spores produced at different times. While some species retain high germinability of spores produced over several weeks, e.g. Perenniporia tenuis var. tenuis and Coriolopsis gallica, with others there is a decline, e.g. germ-inability of Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum declined from >94 to 19 and 44%, respectively, 5 weeks after fruiting was initiated in culture (Schmidt and French, 1983).

0 0

Post a comment