Introduction

Aquatic basidiomycetes are an ecological group and taxonomically very diverse (Table 1). Numerically they are not numerous and this is dictated by environmental conditions. Although a variety of substrata are available for colonization

British Mycological Society Symposia Series © 2008 The British Mycologica! Society

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Table 1 Summary of the characteristics of marine and freshwater basidiomycetes

Classification

Teleomorph

Anamorph

Clamp

Marine Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Agaricales Nia clade

Calathella mangrovei —

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Agaricales Nia clade

Halocyphina villosa

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Agaricales Nia clade

Nia vibrissa

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Agaricales Nia clade

N. globospora

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Agaricales Nia clade

N. epidermoidea

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Agaricales Physalacriaceae

Mycaureola dilseae

Substratum Cellulose Lignin Reference utilization activity

Mangrove wood 0

Mangrove wood

Many timber species mangrove wood

Spartina maritima 0 culm baits

Feathers in sand 0

Jones and Agerer (1992)

Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer (1965)

Moore and Meyers (1959)

Barata et al. (1997)

Rossello et al. (1993)

Red alga Dilsea 0 carnosa

Porter and Farnham (1986)

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Agaricales Physalacriaceae

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Atheliaceae Digitatispora clade

Physalacria maipoensis —

Digitatispora lignícola —

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Atheliaceae Digitatispora clade

D. marina

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Russulales Peniophoraceae

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Polyporales Hyphodermataceae

Agaricomycotina Tremellomycetes Cystofilobasidiales

Agaricomycotina Tremellomycetes Cystofilobasidiales

Agaricomycotina Tremellomycetes Cystofilobasidiales

Haloaleurodiscus mangrovei

Bulbillomyces sp.

Cystofilobasidium bisporidii

C. capitatum

C. infirmominiatum

Aegerita sp.

Mangrove 0 substrata

Wood 0

Mangrove wood 0

Mangrove wood, 0 Acanthus ilicifolius stems

Seawater 0

Seawater 0

Seawater 0

0 Inderbitzin and

Desjardin (1999)

0 Jones (1986)

Jones (unpublished data)

(continued)

Table 1 Continued

Classification

Teleomorph

Anamorph

Clamp

Agaricomycotina Tremellomycetes Cystofilobasidiales

Agaricomycotina Tremellomycetes Cystofilobasidiales

Agaricomycotina Tremellomycetes Cystofilobasidiales

Ustilaginomycotina

Urtilaginomycetes

Melanotaeniaceae

Rhodosporidium diobvatum

Rh. paludigenum

Rh. sphaerocarpum

Melanotaenium ruppiae —

Pucciniomycotina Agaricostilbomycetes Agaricostilbales Agaricostilbaceae

Puccinimycotina Microbotryomycetes Sporidiobolales? Microbotryales?

Sterigmatomyces halophilus

Sakaguchia dacryoidea —

Freshwater

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Agaricales Nia clade

Peyronelina glomerulata

Substratum Cellulose Lignin Reference utilization activity

Seawater, mangrove detritus

Mangrove and Juncus roemerianus, marshes Seawater

Marine angiosperm Ruppia maritima Seawater

Feldmann (1959)

Fell et al. (2001), Kurtzman and Fell (2006)

Kurtzman and Fell (2006)

Wood

Yamaguchi et al. (2006)

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Agaricales Cyotellaceae

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Agaricales Eugarics clade Physalacriaceae clade

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Polyporales Hyphodermataceae

Agaricomycotina Agaricomycetes Cantharellales Sistotremataceae

Agaricomycetes

Polyporales

Hyphodermataceae

Agaricomycetes

Polyporales

Hyphodermataceae

Agaricomycotina Tremellomycetes Tremellaels Sirobasidiaceae

Limnoperdon — incarnatum

Gloiocephala aquatica —

Bulbillomyces farinosus Aegerita Candida

Subulicystidium A. tortuosa longisporum

Sistotrema hamatum Ingoldiella hamata

— I. nutans Xenolchne flagellifera —

Hardwood 0 0 Escobar et al. (1976)

twigs, marsh water

Submerged culms

Desjardin et al. (1995)

Wood

Wood

Wood

Shaw (1972), Nawawi and Webster (1982)

Foam

Nawawi (1973, 1985)

Bandoni and

Marvanova (1989)

Logs

0 Rogers (1947)

(continued)

Table 1 Continued

Classification

Teleomorph

Anamorph

Agaricomycotina

Tremellomycetes

Tremellales

Sirobasidiaceae?

Filobasidiales

Filobasidiaceae

Cryptococcus aquaticus

Agaricomycotina Tremellomycetes Cystofilobasidiales

Rhodotorula ferulica

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Stauriella aquatica

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Dendrosporomyces prolifer

D. splendens

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Tricladiomyces geniculatus

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

T. malaysianus

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Fibulomyces crucelliger Taeniospora descalsii

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

T. gracilis var. enecta

T. gracilis var. gracilis

Clamp Substratum Cellulose Lignin Reference utilization activity

Foam 0 0

Freshwater

Submerged test blocks of Dipterocarpus alatus Freshwater foam

Decaying leaves, twigs, foam

On leaves submerged in a stream Submerged decaying leaves

Foam

Water, foam

Marvanovâ and Bärlocher (1998), Fell et al. (2001)

Kurtzman and Fell (1998)

Sivichai and Jones (2004)

Nawawi et al. (1977b)

Nawawi and Webster (1982)

Nawawi and Kuthubutheen (1988)

Marvanovâ and Stalpers (1987)

Nawawi et al. (1977a)

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

T. nasifera

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Fibulotaeniella canadensis

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Anguillomyces acadiensis

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Nodulospora inconstans

Pucciniomyctoina Microbotryomycetes Sporidiobolales Sporidiobolaceae

Rogersiomyces okefenokeensis

Pucciniomycotina Pucciniomycetes Platygloeales Platygloeaceae Incertae sedis

Camptobasidium hydrophilum

Crucella subtilis

Pucciniomycotina Classiculomycetes Classiculales Classiculaceae

Classicula fluitans

Naiadella fluitans

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Jaculispora submersa

Basidiomycota Platygloeaceae? Incertae sedis

Helicogloea angustispora

Infundibura adhaerens

Basidiomycota Incertae sedis

Reniforma strues

Note: +, Positive character; —, negative; 0, not determined.

Foam 0 0

Foam 0 0

Foam 0 0

Decaying leaves 0 0

Decaying leaves 0 0 in a stream

Scirpus 0 0 microcarpus leaf litter, foam

Leaf litter 0 0

Foam 0 0

Wastewater 0 0

Marvanovâ and Bärlocher (1988)

Marvanovâ and Bärlocher (1988)

Marvanovâ and Bärhlocher (2000)

Marvanovâ and Bärlocher (2000)

Crane and Schoknecht (1978)

Marvanovâ and Suberkropp (1990)

Marvanovâ and Bandoni (1987)

Kirschner (2004)

Pore and Sorenson (1990), Kurtzman and Fell (2006)

in aquatic habitats, wood and leaves have received the greatest attention. Anamorphic fungi and ascomycetes appear to be better able to withstand the saturated conditions prevailing in such habitats, far more so than basidiomycetes (Jones, 1972; Shearer, 1993). Microfungi cause soft-rot decay of wood in such environments with hyphae penetrating the S2 layer of the wood cell walls (Mouzouras et al., 1987) with penetration from cell to cell and the formation of T-branches leading to typical diamond shaped cavities (Mouzouras, 1986). This feature may confer on them a competitive advantage over basidiomycetes who degrade the wood from the cell lumen inwards (Mouzouras et al., 1987). Thus enzymes may be leached into the surrounding water.

Materials that fall into aquatic systems are colonized by a variety of organisms. In the marine environment bacteria and actinomycetes, are the initial colonizers but do not penetrate deeply into wood, this being accomplished by microfungi (ascomycetes and anamorphic fungi). Basidiomycetes generally appear later in the succession (Byrne and Jones, 1974; Alias and Jones, 2000a). Little is known of the sequence of wood colonization by basidiomycetes in freshwater as few studies have examined this aspect in any detail (Sivichai et al., 2000, 2002; Kane et al., 2002).

0 0

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