Illegal trade

International trade in wildlife is estimated to be worth billions of dollars each year and involves hundreds of millions of plant and animal specimens. Although some of these are traded legally, a substantial proportion involves the lucrative trade of products from endangered species. Examples of these include caviar from Caspian Sea sturgeon ingredients such as rhinoceros horns for traditional medicine pets, including exotic birds and tropical fish rainforest hardwood trees and other timber...

Monogamy polygamy and promiscuity

There are five basic types of animal mating systems (Table 6.1). Monogamy involves a pair-bond between one male and one female, whereas in polygamy, which includes polygyny, polyandry and polygynandry, social bonds involve multiple males and or females. Promiscuity refers to the practice of mating in the absence of any social ties. Note that many species will adopt two or more different mating systems, and the examples used throughout this text are not meant to imply that a particular species...