The second applied area we shall look at that has some overlap with molecular ecology is agriculture. Many of the methods we have looked at in previous chapters are used in a range of farming-related issues, and in fact the connections between molecular ecology and agriculture are so varied that they could form the basis of an entire book. In this section we shall limit ourselves to looking at just a few of the ways in which molecular ecology can be applied to agricultural concerns: retracing the spread of pests and pathogens, identifying species and varieties for the purposes of law enforcement, and assessing gene flow and hybridization between genetically modified crops and their wild relatives.

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