Chapter

= 0.085 + 0.136 - (0.085)(0.136) = 0.085 + 0.136 - 0.01156 = 0.209

4.3. Factors that may explain the discrepancy in Nem are:

• Selection of markers used to estimate Nem.

• Populations are not at equilibrium.

• Mark-recapture studies targeted the wrong areas.

• Mark-recapture covered only the breeding season; adults may disperse at other times.

4.4. (i) Gene flow -- genetic differentiation is inversely proportional to gene flow.

(ii) Ne - in the absence of appreciable levels of gene flow at least some genetic differentiation will be attributable to genetic drift, and the rate of drift depends on Ne.

(iii) Local adaptation and strength of selection pressure -- if selection is strong enough then population differentiation will occur despite ongoing gene flow.

4.5. Yes -- microsatellite divergence is generally higher than AFLP, which can be attributed to different mutation rates, but there is one outlier (AFLP locus 4) that shows particularly high divergence and may have been subjected to natural selection.

4.6. Assuming that FST reflects genetic divergence as a result of drift, QST is lower than expected if height was a neutral QTL and therefore it appears that a fixed height has been selected for in these populations.

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