Chapter

6.1. Yes. Males can be excluded if they have no alleles that match the chick's alleles at one or more loci, and this is true of males 1, 2, 3, and 6. At locus 1, the chick's band 2 must have come from the mother, and therefore male 4 can also be excluded (he can't have provided the chick's band 1). This means that all except male 5 can be excluded from paternity.

6.2. Just as males tend to have a relatively high variation in reproductive success in polygynous mating systems, we may expect females to have a relatively high variation in polyandrous mating systems because, unless the population has a male-biased sex ratio, not all females will be able to defend a territory and attract multiple mates.

6.3. (0.5 - 0.45) + (0.5 - 0.50)/(1 - 0.45) + (1 - 0.50) = (0.05 + 0)/(0.55 + 0.50) = 0.05/1.05 = 0.048

6.4. No. In monogynous (single queen) colonies, workers have a higher related-ness with their sisters (0.75) than their brothers (0.25) and therefore their ideal sex ratio should be 3:1 compared with the queen's ideal of 1:1. In polygynous (multiple queens) colonies, full-siblings will be less frequent and therefore the ideal sex ratio for workers will be less than 3 : 1 (i.e. closer to the queen's ideal), in which case conflict should be weaker.

6.5. (i) Dispersal is male-biased because genetic differentiation is lower for males than for females.

(ii) Dispersal is male-biased because genetic differentiation is higher for mtDNA (maternally inherited) loci than for nuclear (biparentally inherited) loci.

(iii) Dispersal is male-biased because negative values of AIc mean that an individual is likely to be a recent immigrant and the overall AIc values were negative in males but not in females.

(iv) Dispersal is female-biased because local relatedness values were higher for males than for females.

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