8.1. The average number of individuals that would have to be screened in each population before duplicate genotypes are found is taken from the probability of identity calculations, and would be 1/1.1 x 10~5 « 90909 (B), 1/2.2 x 10~5 « 45454 (LM) and 1/4.6 x 10~2 « 22 (TN). These loci therefore would be suitable for individual identification in wildlife forensics when used in populations B and LM but not in TN. This difference in efficacy is due to the substantially lower levels of genetic diversity in TN (according to He and total number of alleles) compared with the other two populations.

8.2. Cervus unicolor, the Sambar deer. This species is a prized trophy in the South Pacific, but hunting is tightly regulated throughout much of its range.

8.3. There are a number of possible explanations for these data, but perhaps the simplest explanation is that because genetic diversity was high in Mexico and low further north, the cotton boll likely colonized the USA from Mexico, (the low genetic diversity further north is consistent with a founder effect). Relatively high FST and low Nm between regions suggests that long-distance gene flow is limited and therefore the northwards spread of the boll weevil could be attributed to rare long-distance dispersal events (this is also consistent with a founder effect).

8.4. The Ne/Nc of the composite wild-hatchery populations can be lower than that of the 'pure' wild population if:

• The genetic diversity is lower in hatchery versus wild fish.

• The overall genetic diversity is decreased following the genetic swamping of wild fish with genetically less variable hatchery fish.

• Outbreeding depression lowers the fitness of hybrids, in which case the proportion of less genetically variable hatchery fish would remain relatively high.

• There is an increase in VRS following the more intense competition that may result from an elevated Nc (Chapter 3).

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