Studies of phylogeography confirm the importance of historical processes in shaping the current distributions of genes and species, and therefore we must incorporate history into the theoretical underpinnings of molecular ecology. In the final three chapters we will build on the theory of molecular markers and population genetics that was presented in Chapters 1-5 by looking at some specific applications of molecular ecology. We will start this in the next chapter by asking how molecular data have contributed to our understanding of behavioural ecology.

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