In this chapter we summarized why the application of molecular data to ecological studies has been so important. We have also considered why DNA is so variable, both within and among species. Now that we know how techniques such as PCR and sequencing allow us to tap into some of the information that is stored within genomes, we will build on this information in the next chapter by taking a more detailed look at the properties of the different genomes and genetic markers that are used in molecular ecology.

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