Gracilis Ebook

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The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this manual are precise.

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Materials and Methods

For the previously unreported results on seasonal polyphenism and life-cycle regulation in Polygonia satyrus, P. gracilis zephyrus and P. faunus, methods were as follows. Stock originated from females caught in Washington State, USA. As larvae hatched they were randomly divided among different photoperiod treatments (designed to elucidate the role of photoperiod in the adult stage) and raised in environmental cabinets at 20 C. There were four possible treatments (see Tables 5.1 and 5.2)

Photoperiodic Control of the Life Cycle

P. gracilis showed a higher proportion of females with eggs after an increase in daylength during the larval stage, as predicted for a polyphenic species. Also as predicted, the non-polyphenic P. faunus did not seem to be sensitive to an increase in daylength during the larval stage (Table 5.2). However, for both of these species, sample sizes were small and missing treatments prevented a real test of the hypotheses outlined above. Concerning P. satyrus, short adult daylengths did not prevent egg maturation. This is as expected for a polyphenic species (Table 5.2), and as found in P. c-album (Nylin, 1989). However, egg maturation was not well correlated with coloration (cf. Tables 5.1 and 5.2), a further demonstration that the observed polyphenism is not necessarily adaptive in this species. Note especially that the constant long-day treatment was the most effective in inducing direct development in females (Table 5.2), but resulted in a high proportion of individuals of the dark...

Performance and the Evolution of Hostplant Preference

Species, such as P. gracilis, instead do better on Ribes than on Urtica (Janz et al., 2001). It is hard to see why such patterns should exist, unless it is because it is difficult to perform equally well on several plant species, especially when they are distantly related and consequently chemically different. Perhaps, then, the most universal reason for specialization is simply that it is best to specialize on the plant (or set of similar plants) where overall performance is best (Nylin and Janz, 1999). One could instead fruitfully ask why there are any generalists at all, and look for explanations in terms of higher realized fecundity or spreading of risks in variable environments.

Mate choice and speciation

One recent example of pre-zygotic isolation comes from the closely related and co-occurring damselfly species Nehalennia irene and Nehalennia gracilis in Canada.54 In a recent experiment, females of the two species were presented to males of the two species. It turns out that male N. irene are relatively indiscriminate in their sexual preferences, showing little if any difference in their propensity to form a 'tandem' (a necessary prelude to copulation that involves the male grasping the female just behind her head) with female N. irene and female N. gracilis. In contrast, N. gracilis are considerably more discriminating, preferring to attempt to form a tandem with members of their own species.54 One explanation for this difference is that N. gracilis is rather rare, so that most females a male N. irene meets will be of its own species and the chance of a male N. irene making a mistake is correspondingly low conversely, the chance of a male N. gracilis making a mistake is very high,...

Reticulate evolution and essential oils

(e.g., carvone from the spearmints, Mentha gracilis and Mentha spicata Tucker et al. 1991 Telci et al. 2004), it is significant that hybridization, and specifically hybrid speciation, is widespread in this genus. Thus, the lineages that provide the basis for the essential oils, and so on have a reticulate history (e.g., see Tucker and Fairbrothers 1990 Khanuja et al. 2000 Gobert et al. 2002). Figure 5.10 (Gobert et al. 2002) reflects a portion of the hybrid speciation events recognized for the genus, in this case for three of the major lineages utilized for mint extracts M. x gracilis (or M. gracilis), M. spicata, and M. x piperita (or M. piperita). As indicated in Figure 5.10, the hybrid speciation events produced forms that are recognized as either spearmint or peppermint. However, there is an added complexity to these reticulations because there were three and two separate evolutionary origins for lineages that produce compounds associated with the category of spearmint and...

Genotypic differences in community structure

Using a canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) to determine differences in community structure among genetic classes (PROC CANDISC SAS Institute, 1990), we detected significant variation among genetic classes (Wilk's X 0.460, F 4.7, P 0.001). Each of the first three linear descriptive functions (LDFs) were significant, with these three LDFs explaining 49 , 29 and 13 of the variance in community structure, respectively (Table 7.1). To further explain the basis for changes in community structure, we evaluated how the herbivore species loaded onto the LDFs (Table 7.1). Based on the loading of each herbivore species for the first LDF, three herbivore species were of greatest importance in explaining the pattern observed Phyllocolpa eleanorae, Phyllocolpa nigrita and Phyllocnistis salicifolia. For the second LDF the two most important herbivore species were Phyllocolpa terminalis and Phyllocolpa sp. C. Again, based on the loadings, Eupontania s-gracilis, Phyllonorycter salicifoliella and...

The case for parallel evolution of edaphic races in the Lasthenia californica complex

Based on a comprehensive ITS ETS cpDNA phylogenetic study, Chan et al. (2001 2002) found that L. californica sensu Ornduff represents two geographically-based, non-sister clades. Chan (2001) and Chan et al. (2002) recognized the clades as two cryptic taxa, L. californica subsp. californica representing the northern clade and L. gracilis DC. (Greene) representing the southern clade. The molecular phylogeny allowed us to examine the relationship of the edaphic races to the newly recognized phylogenetic taxa. If ecological selection has played a role in the origin of edap-hic races, then similar edaphic tolerances may have evolved in parallel within one or both of the phylogenetic taxa. Indeed, a previous study of allozyme variation (Desrochers and Bohm 1995) indicated that single populations of race A and C cluster with sets of populations belonging to the alternative race. We determined the edaphic race and phylogen-etic affinities of 33 populations from throughout the range of the...

Scaling effects on vertebrate ectotherm muscle and whole body performance

Optimal cycle frequency for maximal muscle work loop-power output decreases with increasing body size 44,58,72 . Altringham and co-workers 44 have shown that interindividual variation in the optimal cycle frequency for work loop-power output in Xenopus muscle fiber bundles is more dependent on body size in slower muscle fibers (from adductor magnus) than in faster muscle fibers (from sartorius), with scaling exponents of Mb0-23 and Mb007, respectively. It has been argued that in faster muscles and muscle fiber bundles, contractile speed decreases less dramatically with body size as animals attempt to maximize speed and power available for escape responses 44 . In contrast, in slower muscle and muscle fibers, rapid muscle shortening velocity or deactivation rate is not as crucial to organismal performance therefore, large energetic savings can be made by decreasing these variables, hence, the relatively high scaling exponent 71 .

Plant Productivity Survival and Growth Form

Plants often are able to compensate for herbivory in the spring when conditions favor plant productivity but become less able to compensate later in the season (Akiyama et al. 1984, Hik and Jefferies 1990, Thompson and Gardner 1996). Grasshopper, Aulocara elliotti, did not significantly reduce standing crop of blue grama grass, Bouteloua gracilis, when feeding occurred early in the growing season but significantly reduced standing crop when feeding occurred later in southwestern New Mexico, United States (Thompson and Gardner 1996).

Some key points about nutrient budgets in terrestrial ecosystems

Figure 18.7 Nitrogen available to actively growing roots of the bunchgrass Bouteloua gracilis in shortgrass steppe ecosystems in relation to precipitation in the study period. The values for the six sampling periods are the averages of eight replicate plots. , downslope plots o, upslope plots (up to 11m further up the same hillslope). (After Hook & Burke, 2000.)

Partial List Of Suppliers

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Box 202 Families And Genera Of Scleractinia Hard Corals On The Great Barrier Reef

Coscinaria

Figure 20.5 Examples of genera and species from the major coral families Acroporidae (A-F) and Faviidae (G-L). Species A, Acropora echinata B, Acropora muricata C, Acropora hyacinthus D, Isopora palifera E, Montipora incrasata F, Astreopora gracilis G, Favia maritima H, Favites halicora I, Goniastrea aspera J, Platygyra sinensis K, Echinopora gemmifera L, Diploastrea heliopora. (Photos P. Muir.) Figure 20.5 Examples of genera and species from the major coral families Acroporidae (A-F) and Faviidae (G-L). Species A, Acropora echinata B, Acropora muricata C, Acropora hyacinthus D, Isopora palifera E, Montipora incrasata F, Astreopora gracilis G, Favia maritima H, Favites halicora I, Goniastrea aspera J, Platygyra sinensis K, Echinopora gemmifera L, Diploastrea heliopora. (Photos P. Muir.)

Carcharias megalodon See Megatooth shark

At least four species of catfish were sampled by CD, and three are described in *Fish (p. 11014). One, based on a specimen taken from a running brook near *Rio de Janeiro, was Pimelo-dusgracilis Valenciennes 1836, i.e. it had already been described (see Jenyns' note in Fish in Spirits, no. 180). The other two were new P. exsudans Jenyns 1840 (also from Rio ) was found in the *collections without labels (Fish in Spirits, after no. 181), and Callichthys paleatus (Fish, p. 11314 Another specimen from same site Fish in Spirits, nos. 181 182). Of these new species, the former is now called Rhamdella exsudans (Jenyns, 1840), and assigned to the long-whiskered cat-fishes (Family Pimelodidae), along with what is now Pimelodella gracilis. The third, now Carydo-raspaleatus (Jenyns, 1842) is presently assigned to the Callichthyidae, a family of armoured cat-fishes. Additionally, Jenyns noted One of the Siluridae - very bad & thrown away (Fish in Spirits, no. 1244). And since we are at it, we may...

Hydroxylation

This enzyme was first reported in the microsomal fractions of Haplopappus gracilis cell cultures,33 studied in more detail in parsley,34 and later shown to occur in the flowers of several species.7 F3'H catalyzes the hydroxylation of naringenin and dihydrokaempferol (DHK), as well as of apigenin or kaempferol to their respective 3'-hydroxy derivatives, eriodictyol, dihydroquercetin (DHQ), luteolin, and quercetin, but does not accept the flavan 3,4-diols or anthocyanidins as substrates,34 indicating that B-ring hydroxylation of the latter is determined at the dihydroflavonol level. It was more than two decades later that the first cDNA clone encoding F3'H was isolated and characterized from the flowers of Petunia hybridal Arabidopsis thaliana,36 and Perilla frutescens.37 Their recombinant proteins were shown to

Mineral nutrients

Figure 3.20 (a) The root systems of plants in a typical short-grass prairie after a run of years with average rainfall (Hays, Kansas). Ap, Aristida purpurea Aps, Ambrosia psilostachya Bd, Buchloe dactyloides Bg, Bouteloua gracilis Mc, Malvastrum coccineum Pt, Psoralia tenuiflora Sm, Solidago mollis. (After Albertson, 1937 Weaver & Albertson, 1943.) (b) The root system developed by a plant of wheat grown through a sandy soil containing a layer of clay. Note the responsiveness of root development to the localized environment that it encounters. (Courtesy of J.V. Lake.) Figure 3.20 (a) The root systems of plants in a typical short-grass prairie after a run of years with average rainfall (Hays, Kansas). Ap, Aristida purpurea Aps, Ambrosia psilostachya Bd, Buchloe dactyloides Bg, Bouteloua gracilis Mc, Malvastrum coccineum Pt, Psoralia tenuiflora Sm, Solidago mollis. (After Albertson, 1937 Weaver & Albertson, 1943.) (b) The root system developed by a plant of wheat grown through a sandy...

Figure 412

A similar mechanism is at work in the sedge, Carex gracilis (Koncalova et al. 1988), and in Oryza sativa (Raskin and Kende 1985). When their roots are submerged, carbon dioxide is released and dissolved in the surrounding water. The gas pressure within the plants' internal gas spaces decreases, causing a mass flow of air into the aerated portion of the plant.

Londons lichens

Air pollution was reported from cities as early as 1273, when the burning of coal in London was prohibited as being 'prejudicial to health' (Laundon 1973). Laundon suggests it is likely that air pollution was already having some effect on lichens at that time. Needless to say, medieval legislation was ineffective. By the seventeenth century, ever increasing coal combustion in London led to a serious and growing problem and the first records of damage to vegetation were fascinatingly portrayed by the English diarist John Evelyn in 1661 in 'Fumifugium or the inconvenience of the aer and smoake of London dissipated' (Bell & Treshow 2002). The first known lichen records to be published for London were those of James Petiver who recorded Cladonia coccifera (a red-fruited 'pixie cup' lichen) from Putney Heath before 1695. This species was noted by Laundon as 'gratifyingly being present nearly 300 years later' (Laundon 1967). Cladonia gracilis, collected from Hampstead Heath on 7 March 1696...

Seasonal Polyphenism

In accordance with the phylogenetic interpretation depicted in Fig. 5.2 (polyphenism ancestral) it can be noted that both P. gracilis zephyrus and P. gracilis N P. progne N Fig. 5.2. Phylogeny of Polygonia and relatives, based on Nylin et al. (2001) and Wahlberg and Nylin (2003). Uncertain relationships depicted by unresolved branching patterns. Capital letters after species names refer to biogeographical region P Palaearctic, N Nearctic, H Holarctic. Lineages with the type of strong ventral polyphenism found in Polygonia c-album and two other Palaearctic species shown with thick lines. This trait is reconstructed as being ancestral to Polygonia if gains are evolutionarily less likely than losses. Traces of similar polyphenism are found also in P. satyrus and P. gracilis (see text). P. gracilis

Sea Snakes

* This species variously reported (1) as a shallow-water form occurring in water 2 m to 10 m deep, based on direct observation of this species on coral reefs and (2) as occurring at depths of 10-30 fathoms (18-55 m) based on trawling catches. ** Sometimes erroneously called Microcephalophis gracilis in the literature. *** Often listed as Lapemis hardwickii (a synonym). * This species variously reported (1) as a shallow-water form occurring in water 2 m to 10 m deep, based on direct observation of this species on coral reefs and (2) as occurring at depths of 10-30 fathoms (18-55 m) based on trawling catches. ** Sometimes erroneously called Microcephalophis gracilis in the literature. *** Often listed as Lapemis hardwickii (a synonym).

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