References

Baldock, D., Beaufoy, G., Brouwer, F. and Godeschalk, F. (1996) Farming at the Margins. Abandonment or Redeployment of Agricultural Land in Europe. Institute for European Environmental Policy, London. Bethe, F. and Bolsius, E.C.A. (1995) Marginalisation of Agricultural Land in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. National Spatial Planning Agency, The Hague, Netherlands. Braun-Blanquet, J. (1965) Plant Sociology the Study of Plant Communities, 1st edn. Hafner, London. Clegg, L.M. and Grace, J....

Contributors

Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Kvak Mollevej 31, DK-7100 Vejle, Denmark e-mail rmb kvl.dk, fax +45-35281512 Matthew J.W. Cock CABI Switzerland Centre, Rue des Grillons 1, CH-2800 Delemont, Switzerland e-mail m.cock cabi.org, fax +41-32-4214871 R. Lutz Eckstein Institute of Landscape Ecology and Resource Management, Division of Landscape Ecology and Landscape Planning, University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392...

Choosing Livestock for Control by Grazing

Large mammal grazers have evolved three basic principles for dealing with cellwall breakdown 1. Ruminants (e.g. sheep, cattle) have pre-stomach fermentation and an emol-liating tank, where micro-organisms break down cell walls. The food bulk is emolliated in fluid, regurgitated, re-chewed and finally sent to the animal's proper digestive system, resulting in a long gastro-intestinal passage time. 2. Hindgut fermentators (e.g. horses) pass food through the normal digestive system first, i.e....

Taxonomy and History of Invasive Heracleum Species in Nordic Countries

Heracleum Platytaenium

In the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden large Heracleum species have been known since the first third of the 19th century, but it was not appreciated until the mid 20th century that there were more than one species. A recent revision of the genus in the Nordic countries L. Froberg, in prep. has shown that, besides the native H. sphondylium L. subsp. sphon-dylium and subsp. sibiricum L. Simonkai, two widespread introduced species occur H. mantegazzianum Somm. et Lev....

Seedling Dynamics

The seedling stage is the most vulnerable in the life cycle of a plant. Young seedlings suffer a high mortality due to attack by herbivores and pathogens, as well as from intra- and interspecific competition or unsuitable environmental conditions such as frost or drought Harper, 1977 Crawley, 1997 . Because reproduction in H. mantegazzianum is exclusively by seed see Perglova et al., Chapter 4 and Pysek et al., Chapter 7, this volume , seedlings represent the only means of colonization of new...

Main Vegetation Types with Heracleum mantegazzianum and their Phytosociological Classification

Species composition of communities with H. mantegazzianum in the Greater Caucasus is primarily related to altitude Fig. 2.10 . The first axis of the 1.1 Lowland ruderal tall-forb vegetation 1.2 Montane ruderal tall-forb vegetation o 2.1 Ruderalized subalpine meadows o 2.2 Subalpine tall-forb vegetation Fig. 2.10. DCA ordination diagram axes 1 and 2 of 94 vegetation relev s with H. mantegazzianum from the native distribution range in the Western Greater Caucasus. Sites and selected species are...