Dptera

Tephritidae

Agonopterix caucasiella Karsholt

Pammene (Cydia) gallicana Guenée

Pammene aurana F.

Euleia heraclei L.

Agromyzidae Melanagromyza angeliciphaga Spencer

Family Family

Family Family

Leaf roller, umbel chewing

Umbel chewing

Chewing

Chewing

L Leaf miner, chewing L/P/A Stem borer

Melanagromyza heracleana Family Zlobin

Stem borer

Plant organc Locality Source

Leaves

EUoc

Sampson (1990); Emmet

CAUoe

(1996)

Root, stem, umbel,

Seppänen (1970); Hansen

leaves

and Hattendorf6

Umbel

EU/CAU

Sampson (1990); Bürki and

Nentwig (1997); Hansen

and Hattendorf6

Leaves

EU/CAU

Emmet (1979); Sampson

(1990); Hansen and

Hattendorf6

Karsholt etal. (2006)

Umbel

EUoc

Emmet (1979); Sampson

(1990)

Umbel

EU

Sampson (1990); Harper

etal. (2002)

Leaves

EUoc

Sampson (1990); Hansen

and Hattendorf6

Stem

EU/CAU

Spencer (1972); Bürki and

Nentwig (1997); Jakob etal.

(1998); Hansen and

Hattendorf6

Stem

CAU

Hansen and Hattendorf6

Psilidae

Psila rosae F.

Family

Root borer

Root

EUOC Ashwood-Smith et al.

(1984); Burki and Nentwig (1997); Sampson (1990); Nielsen and Ravne EUOC Hardman and Ellis (1982); Nielsen and Ravne; Hansen and Hattendorfe a Stages collected: E = eggs, L = larvae, P = pupae, A = adults.

b Genus = feeds only on Heracleum spp., family = feeds on Apiaceae, polyphagous = feeds on several plant families. c Plant organ: umbel = feeding on seeds and flower stalks but not on pollen and nectar.

d The locality, where the species is found, is noted as Europe = EU and Caucasus = CAU; EU/CAU = found in both regions. EU does not mean that this species is not occurring in the Caucasus, but just that it had not been found so far on H. mantegazzianum in the Caucasus. OC = Occurs in Caucasus, but so far not found on H. mantegazzianum. OE = Occurs in Europe, but so far not found on H. mantegazzianum. e Collected during field trips in 2002 in the Caucasus, unpublished.

C. scoparius

C. scoparius

S. carolinese

H. mantegazzianum

S. altissima

H. mantegazzianum

S. altissima

% of specialists

Fig. 11.1. Specialist herbivore species on invasive plants make up a significantly higher proportion of the herbivores in the native areas compared to the invaded areas (P < 0.001, df = 7) and significantly different for each of the four invasive plant species (P < 0.001, df = 7). Data for Solidago altissima L. were obtained from Jobin et al. (1996, n = 276), for Solanum carolinense L. from Imura (2003, n = 57), and for Cytisus scoparius L. from Memmott et al. (2000, n = 42).

invaded region (Fig. 11.3) and the under-representation of Lepidoptera and Diptera has also been found in comparable studies of other invasive plants (Imura, 2003; Simberloff, 2003). There are various ways in which over- and under-representations of some insect orders could have developed. Some insect groups are known to contain more generalist feeders, which could then be responsible for the observed differences. Dipteran and hymenopteran herbivores generally are comprised of a larger proportion of specialists than Orthoptera and Coleoptera, for example. Another explanation could be that certain plant defence systems (e.g. furanocoumarins) are particularly active against certain insect orders on H. mantegazzianum. A third explanation is that the herbivore evolutionary adaptation and speciation on the relatively recently evolved species of the genus Heracleum is happening faster in some insect orders than in others (see Cock and Seier, Chapter 16, this volume).

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