General features of newyork city municipal water supply

The municipal water system of New York City has been one of the great assets of the metropolitan region for more than 150 years. Following a sequence of water-related crises in the first third of the nineteenth century, including cholera epidemics and fires (e.g., 1832 and 1835, respectively), major investments for physical infrastructure were made to collect and transport surface water from low population density areas north of the city. The quality and stability of NYC municipal supply made a...

Chlorination byproduct potential in components of the nyc municipal water supply

One illustration of some potential water quality issues for treated water derived from different components of the NYC municipal supply can be Figure 7.7. Laboratory chlorination experiments total trihalomethane concentration vs time, with raw water from Rondout Reservoir (unfiltered) Hudson River at Chelsea (unfiltered and filtered). Figure 7.7. Laboratory chlorination experiments total trihalomethane concentration vs time, with raw water from Rondout Reservoir (unfiltered) Hudson River at...

Zooplankton Grazing and Utilization of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Resources

Zooplankton are typically viewed as grazers on phytoplankton, but consumption of heterotrophic organisms, especially bacteria, flagellates, and ciliates, can be significant both in terms of the mortality of heterotrophs and as a resource for zooplankton. Additionally, in many aquatic systems zooplankton constitute a significant biomass pool and are important in the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus as well as other elements. Relative zooplankton biomass, however, is not large in the...

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pahs

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous compounds containing two to eight rings that arise from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Forest fires and volcanoes contribute to the PAH burden, but by far, anthropogenic sources are responsible for the majority of the PAH input to the atmosphere, which in turn contributes to depositional loadings to aquatic and terrestrial systems. The largest anthropogenic sources of PAHs are vehicular emissions from both gasoline and...

Air and water temperatures wind speed and precipitation

Calculation of dry particle deposition, wet deposition, and gas absorptive fluxes of target organic chemicals to the New York New Jersey Harbor Estuary requires knowledge of the air temperatures and wind speeds at the three sites surrounding the estuary (New Brunswick, Sandy Hook, Liberty Science Center), and the mean surface skin temperature of the water body. Figure 27.3 (upper panel) portrays the mean daily air temperatures for the Figure 27.3. Meteorological parameters at the three sampling...

References

Anderson, H.A., Falk, C., Hanrahan, L., Olson, J., Burse, V. W., Needham, L., Paschal, D., Patterson Jr., D., and Hill, Jr., R. H. 1998. Profiles of Great Lakes critical pollutants a sentinel analysis of human blood and urine. Environmental Health Perspectives 106 279-89. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1994. Toxicological Profile for 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD (Update). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, Georgia. 1998....

Major element stream chemistry data median values

Data on water quality parameters and daily mean water discharge from five USGS monitoring stations were obtained from web sites and from correspondence with USGS personnel. The stations examined (Table 7.2) were selected as representative of important components of the Hudson River basin. Stations at Waterford and Cohoes include discharge from the upper Hudson River (including the Adirondacks) and Mohawk River, respectively, together including runoff from about 60 percent of total basin area....

Migration between the Hudson and New York Bight

I begin this section by documenting differential transport between the Hudson River Estuary and NewYork Bight. Then, I present evidence that these transport patterns are maintained behaviorally. I discuss how larvae are (1) retained in the upper estuary, (2) exchanged between the estuary and shelf, and (3) transported on the continental shelf. Lastly, I suggest that larval migrations to the continental shelf are as reliable as migrations that are completed within the estuary....

The Tidal River

Below the dam at Troy, river flow is no longer the dominant agent of motion of the Hudson River. Owing to the particular suite of geological processes that have sculpted the landscape of the Hudson Valley, the river's shores in Albany are virtually the same elevation as those at the mouth. As a consequence, the tide extends 250 km up the river to the dam at Troy. River flow produces a net southward motion in the tidal river, but tidal velocities are usually much higher than the net southward...

Important Unsolved Problems

Available observations provide us with information about all the major processes occurring in the estuary. The Hudson, however, is both spatially diverse and temporally variable so without adequate spatial and temporal observations, the integrated behavior of sediment in the estuary remains elusive. As a result, managers often find answers to their questions unsatisfying and inadequate. For example, a sediment budget for the estuary requires deposition rates in the various substrates on the...

Regulation of Zooplankton

Zooplankton biomass in rivers and estuaries is typically lower than in lakes even when comparing systems with comparable levels of phytoplank-ton Pace et al., 1992 . This comparison implies other features such as advective losses are important in limiting populations. During the cold temperature, high-flow periods of the year November to May , zooplankton are rapidly advected downstream. After May, however, water residence time in the Hudson is several months. This allows ample time for...

Future Research Needs

While many of the linkages involving zooplankton in the Hudson food web are known, uncertainty remains concerning their importance to populations. Are predator-prey interactions tightly coupled to the respective dynamics of individual populations or are these associations loose in the sense that specific trophic interactions have little affect on dynamics Loose linkages could be the case if populations are highly omnivorous. In this view the estuary represents a dynamic feeding tableau with...

Estimating the Time of Sediment Deposition

The depth distribution of 137Cs in sediment cores provides information on the timing of sediment deposition. The sources of 137Cs to the Hudson River Basin include fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, liquid releases from Indian Point Nuclear Power Generating Facility IPNPGF on the lower Hudson River, andliquid releases from Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory KAPL on the Mohawk River. For dating purpose, the utility of137Cs comes from the fact that it is relatively easy to measure...