We thank Thomas Brosnan, Tom Butler, Jon Cole, and Gordon Taylor for their input and comments. Preparation of this manuscript was supported by an endowment given by David R. Atkinson to Cornell University. Additional support for our Hudson research has been provided by the Hudson River Foundation. The views expressed here are those of the authors and not of the Hudson River Foundation or Cornell.


Banse, K. 1976. Rates of growth, respiration and photosynthesis of unicellular algae as related to cell size: a review. Journal of Phycology 12: 135-40. Billen, G., Somville, M., De Becker, E., and Servais, P. 1985. A nitrogen budget of the Scheldt hydrographical basin. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 19: 223-30. Boyer, E. W, Goodale, C. L., Jaworski, N. A., and Howarth, R. W 2002. Anthropogenic nitrogen sources and relationships to riverine nitrogen export in the northeastern USA. Biogeochemistry 57/58: 137-69. Boynton, W R., Garber, J. H., Summers, R., and Kemp, W.M. 1995. Inputs, transformations, and transport of nitrogen and phosphorus in Chesapeake Bay and selected tributaries. Estuaries 18: 285314.

Bricker, S. B., Clement, C. G., Pirhalla, D. E., Orland, S. P, and Farrow, D. G. G. 1999. National Estu-arine Eutrophication Assessment: Effects of Nutrient Enrichment in the Nation's Estuaries. Special Projects Office and the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD. Brosnan, T. M. and O'Shea, M. L. 1996. Long-term improvements in water quality due to sewage abatement in the lower Hudson River. Estuaries 19:890900.

Chan, F. A. 2001. "Ecological controls on planktonic nitrogen-fixation: the roles of grazing and cross-ecosystem patterns in phytoplankton mortality." Ph.D. thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Clark, J. F., Simpson, H. J., Bopp, R. F., and Deck, B. L. 1992. Geochemistry and loading history of phosphate and silicate in the Hudson estuary. Estuar-ine and Coastal Shelf Science 34: 213-33.

1995. Dissolved oxygen in lower Hudson estuary: 1978-1993. Journal of Environmental Engineering 121(10): 760-3.

Cloern, J. E. 2001. Our evolving conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem. Marine Ecology Progress Series 210: 223-53.

DEP (Department of Environmental Protection). 2001. New York City 2000 Regional Harbor Survey. New York City Department of Environmental Protection, NY.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2001. Nutrient Criteria Technical Guidance Manual: Estuar-ine and Coastal Marine Waters. EPA-822-B-01-003, Office of Water, Washington, DC.

Frithsen, J. B., Keller, A. A., and Pilson, M. E. Q. 1985. Effects of Inorganic Nutrient Additions in Coastal Areas: A Mesocosm Experiment Data Report, Vol. 1. Marine Ecosystem Research Laboratory, Report 3, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.

Garside, C., Malone, T. C., Roels, O. A., and Sharfstein, B. A. 1976. An evaluation of sewage-derived nutrients and their influence on the Hudson estuary andNewYorkBight. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 4:281-9.

Gordon, Jr., D. C., Boudreau, P. R., Mann, K. H., Ong, J.-E., Silvert, W. L., Smith, S. V., Wattayakorn, G., Wulff, F., and Yanagi, T. 1996. LOICZ Biogeochem-ical Modeling Guidelines. LOICZ Reports & Studies No 5,1-96. IGBP, Stockholm.

Hetling, L. J., Stoddard, A., Brosnan, T. M., Hammerman, D. A., and Norris, T. M. 2003. Effect of water quality management efforts on wastewater loadings over the past center. Water Environment Research 75: 30-8.

Holland, E. A., Dentener, F. J., Braswell, B. H., and Sulz-man, J. M. 1999. Contemporary andpre-industrial global reactive nitrogen budgets. Biogeochemistry 46: 7-43.

Howarth, R. W 1998. An assessment of human influences on inputs of nitrogen to the estuaries and continental shelves of the North Atlantic Ocean. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52: 213-23.

Howarth, R. W., Anderson, D., Cloern, J., Elfring, C., Hopkinson, C., Lapointe, B., Malone, T., Marcus, N., McGlathery, K., Sharpley, A., and Walker, D. 2000. Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas. Issues in Ecology 7: 1-15.

Howarth, R. W., Billen, G., Swaney, D., Townsend, A., Jaworski, N., Lajtha, K., Downing, J. A., Elmgren, R., Caraco, N., Jordan, T., Berendse, F., Freney, J., Kuteyarov, V, Murdoch, P, and Zhao-liang, Zhu. 1996b. Riverine inputs of nitrogen to the North Atlantic Ocean: Fluxes and human influences. Biogeochemistry 35: 75-139.

Howarth, R. W, Fruci, J. R., and Sherman, D. M. 1991. Inputs of sediment and carbon to an estuarine ecosystem: Influence of land use. Ecological Applications 1: 27-39.

Howarth, R. W, Jensen, H., Marino, R., and Postma, H. 1995. Transport to and processing of P in near-shore and oceanic waters, in H. Tiessen (ed.), Phosphorus in the Global Environment: Transfers, Cycles, and Management. Chichester, UK: Wiley, pp. 323-45.

Howarth, R. W, and Michaels, A. F. 2000. The measurement of primary production in aquatic ecosystems, in O. Sala, R. Jackson, H. Mooney, and R. W. Howarth (eds.), Methods in Ecosystem Science, NY: Springer, pp.72-85.

Howarth, R. W, Schneider, R., and Swaney, D. 1996a. Metabolism and organic carbon fluxes in the tidal, freshwater Hudson River. Estuaries 19: 848-65.

Howarth, R. W, Swaney, D., Butler, T. J., and Marino, R. 2000. Climatic control on eutrophication of the Hudson River estuary. Ecosystems 3: 210-215.

Jaworski, N. A., Howarth, R. W, and Hetling, L. J. 1997. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides onto the landscape contributes to coastal eutrophica-tion in the northeast United States. Environmental Science and Technology 31: 1995-2004.

Lampman, G. G., Caraco, N. F., and Cole, J. J. 1999. Spatial and temporal patterns of nutrient concentration and export in the tidal Hudson River. Estuaries 22: 285-96.

Lewis, W. M. 2002. Yield of nitrogen from minimally disturbed watersheds in the United States. Bio-geochemistry 57/58: 375-85.

Limburg, K. E., Moran, A., and McDowell, W. H. 1986. The Hudson River Ecosystem. NY: Springer-Verlag.

Malone,T. C. 1977. Environmental regulation of phyto-plankton productivity in the lower Hudson estuary. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science 5:157-71.

Malone, T. C. 1980. Algal size in I. Morris (ed.), The Physiological Ecology of Phytoplankton. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, pp. 433-63.

Malone, T. C., and Conley, D. J. 1996. Trends in nutrient loading and eutrophication: A comparison of the Chesapeake Bay and the Hudson River Es-tuarine Systems, in K. Sherman, N. A. Jaworski, and T. J. Smayda (eds.), The Northeast Shelf Ecosystems: Assessment, Sustainability, and Management. Oxford UK: Blackwell, pp. 327-49.

Mearns, A. J., Haines, E., Klepple, G. S., McGrath, R. A., McLaughlin, J. J. A., Segar, D. A., Sharp, J. H., Walsh, J. J., Word, J. Q., Young, D. K., and Young, M. W. 1982. Effects of nutrients and carbon loadings on communities and ecosystems, in G. F. Mayer (ed.), Ecological Stress and the New York Bight: Science and Management. Estuarine Research Federation, Columbia, SC. pp. 53-65.

Nixon, S. W. 1995. Coastal marine eutrophication: a definition, social causes, and future concerns. Ophelia 41: 199-219.

Nixon, S. W., Ammerman, J. W., Atkinson, L. P, Beroun-sky, V. M., Billen, G., Boicourt, W. C., Boynton, W R., Church, T. M., DiToro, D. M., Elmgren, R., Garber, J. H., Giblin, A. E., Jahnke, R. A., Owens, N. J. P, Pilson, M. E. Q., and Seitzinger, S. P 1996. The fate of nitrogen and phosphorus at the land-sea margin of the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeochem-istry 35: 141-80.

Nixon, S. W., and Pilson, M. E. Q. 1983. Nitrogen in estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems, in E. J. Carpenter, and D. G. Capone (eds.), Nitrogen in the Marine Environment. New York: Academic Press, pp. 565-648.

NRC (National Research Council). 1993. Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 2000. Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reducing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences Press.

O'Reilly, J. E., Thomas, J. P, and Evans, C. 1976. Annual primary production (nanoplankton, netplankton, dissolved organic matter) in the lower New York Bay. Paper #19 in Hudson River Ecology, 4th Symposium. Hudson River Environmental Society, Bronx, NY.

Scavia, D., Field, J. C., Boesch, Buddemeier, R., Bur-kett, V., Canyan, D., Fogarty, M., Harwell, M. A., Howarth, R. W., Mason, C., Reed, D. J., Royer, T.C., Sallenger, A. H., and Titus, J. G. 2002. Climate change impacts on US Coastal and marine ecosystems. Estuaries 25: 149-64.

Sirois, D. L., and Fredrick, S. W. 1978. Phytoplankton and primary production in the lower Hudson River estuary. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 5: 57-171.

Suszkowski D. J. 1990. Conditions in New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary, in Proceedings of Cleaning Up Our Coastal Waters: An Unfinished Agenda. Manhattan College, Riverdale, NY, pp. 105-31.

Swaney, D. P., Howarth, R. W., and Butler, T. J. 1999. A novel approach for estimating ecosystem production and respiration in estuaries: application to the oligohaline and mesohaline Hudson River estuary. Limnology and Oceanography 44: 1509-21.

Swaney, D. P., Sherman, D., and Howarth, R. W. 1996. Modeling water, sediment, and organic carbon discharges in the Hudson-Mohawk Basin: coupling to terrestrial sources. Estuaries 19: 83347.

Taylor, G. T., Way, J., and Scranton, M. I. 2003. Planktonic carbon cycling and transport in surface waters of the highly urbanized Hudson River estuary. Limnology and Oceanography 48: 1779-95.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2002. 2000 Census of Population and Housing. Economics and Statistics Administration, U. S. Department of Commerce.

[online] url: 2khome.htm.

USGS (United States Geological Survey). 2002. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States: Watershed Boundaries. [online] url:

0 0

Post a comment