This research was a result of the collaborative efforts of my colleagues (Kamazima Lwiza, Bob Cowen), students (Holly Kunze, Andy Matthews, Karl Lobue, Jeff Schell, Jean Anastasia, Kevin Hovel) and the crew of the R/V Onrust (Brett Zielenski, Mark Wiggins). Lynn McMasters and Justin Nevi-ackas assisted with figure preparation. Funding was provided by two grants from the Hudson River Foundation (01091A, 0993A) and one grant from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NA90AA-D-SG078) to the Research Foundation of the State University of New York for the New York Sea Grant Institute. The U. S. Government is authorized to produce and distribute reprints for governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation that may appear hereon. The views expressed herein is the author's and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies. Contribution Number 2183 from the Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California at Davis.


Anastasia, J. C. 1999. Plasticity and the cost of dispersal by estuarine crab larvae. Doctoral dissertation. State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York.

Anastasia, J. C., Morgan, S. G., and Fisher, N. S. 1998. Tagging crustacean larvae: assimilation and retention of trace elements. Limnology and Oceanography 43:362-8. Bousfield, E. L. 1955. Ecological control of the occurrence of barnacles in the Miramichi estuary. Bulletin of the National Museum of Canada 137:1-69. Breitburg, D. L. 1989. Demersal schooling prior to settlement of larvae of the naked goby. Environmental Biology of Fishes 26:97-103. Christy, J. H., and Morgan, S. G. 1998. Estuarine immigration by crab postlarvae: mechanisms, reliability and adaptive significance. Marine Ecology Progress Series 174:51-65. Cronin, T. W., and Forward, Jr., R. B. 1986. Vertical migration cycles of crab larvae and their role in larval dispersal. Bulletin of Marine Science 39: 192-201. Epifanio, C. E. 1988. Dispersal strategies of two species of swimming crabs on the continental shelf ad jacent to Delaware Bay. Marine Ecology Progress Series 49:243-8.

Epifanio, C. E. and Garvine, R. W 2001. Larval transport on the Atlantic continental shelf of North America: a review. Estuarine Coastaland Shelf Science 52:51-77.

Epifanio, C. E., Little, K. T., and Rowe, P M. 1988. Dispersal and recruitment of fiddler crab larvae in the Delaware river estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series 43:181-8.

Epifanio, C. E., Valenti, C. C., and Pembroke, A. E. 1984. Dispersal and recruitment of blue crab larvae in the Delaware Bay. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 18:1-12.

Forward, R. B., Jr., and Rittschof, D. 1994. Photore-sponses of crab megalopae in offshore and es-tuarine waters: implications for transport. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 182:183-92.

Gaines, S. D., and Bertness, M. D. 1992. Dispersal of juveniles and variable recruitment in sessile marine species. Nature 360:579-80.

Heck, K. L, Jr., Coen, L. D., and Morgan, S. G. 2001. Pre-and post-settlement factors as determinants ofju-venile blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) abundance: results from the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology Progress Series 222:163-76.

Hovel, K. A., and Morgan, S. G. 1997. Planktivory as a selective force for reproductive synchrony and larval migration. Marine Ecology Progress Series 157:79-95.

Hunter, J. R. 1981. Feeding ecology and predation of marine fish larvae, in R. Lasker (ed.), Marine Fish Larvae: Morphology, Ecology and Relation to Fisheries. Washington Sea Grant Program, University of Washington, Seattle, pp. 34-77.

Johns, D. M., and Lang, W H. 1977. Larval development of the spider crab, Libinia emarginata (Majidae). Fishery Bulletin 75:831-41.

Kingsford, M. J., Leis, J., Shanks, A., Lindeman, K., Morgan, S., and Pineda, J. 2002. Sensory environments, larval abilities and local self-recruitment. Bulletin of Marine Science 70:309-40.

Luckenbach, M. W., and Orth, R. J. 1992. Swimming velocities and behavior of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) megalopae in still and flowing water. Estuaries 15:186-92.

Massman, W H., Norcross, J. J., and Joseph, E. B. 1963. Distribution of larvae of the naked goby, Gobio-soma bosci, in the York River. Chesapeake Science 4:120-5.

Morgan, S. G. 1995. Life and death in the plankton: larval mortality and adaptation, in L. McEdward (ed.), Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 279-321.

2001. The larval ecology of marine communities, in M. Bertness, M. Hay, and S. D. Gaines (eds), Marine Community Ecology, Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, pp. 158-81.

Morgan, S. G., Zimmer-Faust, R. K., Heck, Jr., K. L., and Coen, L. D. 1996. Population regulation of blue crabs, Callinectes, in the northern Gulf of Mexico: postlarval supply. Marine Ecology Progress Series 133:73-88.

Pile, A. J., Lipcius, R. N., Van Morntfrans, J., and Orth, R. J. 1996. Density-dependent settler-recruit-juvenile relationships in blue crabs. Ecological Monographs 66:277-300. Schultz, E. T., Cowen, R. K., Lwiza, K. M. M., and Gospodarek, A. M. 2000. Explaining advection: do larval bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) show selective tidal-stream transport? ICES Journal of Marine Science 57:360-71.

Shanks, A. L.1995. Mechanisms of cross-shelf dispersal of larval invertebrates and fishes, in L. McEdward (ed.), Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 323-67.

Strathmann, R. R. 1982. Selection for retention or export of larvae in estuaries, in V Kennedy (ed.) Estuarine Comparisons.NewYork: Academic Press, pp. 521-36.

Strathmann, R. R., Hughes, T. P., Kuris, A. M., Lindeman, K. C., Morgan, S. G., Pandolfi, J. M., and Warner, R. R. 2002. Evolution of self-recruitment and its consequences for marine populations. Bulletin of Marine Science 70:377-96.

Sulkin. S. D., Van Heukelem, W., Kelly, P, and Van Heukelem, L. 1980. The behavioral basis of larval recruitment in the crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun: a laboratory investigation of the ontogenetic changes in geotaxis and barokinesis. Biological Bulletin 159:402-417.

Thorrold, S. R., Burton, R. S., Jones, G. P., Hellberg, M. E.,Swearer, S. E., Niegel, J. E., Morgan, S. G., and Warner, R. R. 2002. Quantifying larval retention and connectivity in marine populations with artificial and natural markers: can we do it right? Bulletin of Marine Science 70: 273-90.

Thorson, G. 1950. Reproductive and larval ecology of marine bottom invertebrates. Biological Review 25:1-45.

Williams, A. B. 1984. Shrimps, Lobsters, and Crabs ofthe Atlantic Coast of the Eastern United States, Maine to Florida. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Wolcott, T. G. 1995. New options in physiological and behavioural ecology through multichannel telemetry. Marine Ecology Progress Series 193:257-75.

Young, C. M. 1990. Larval ecology of marine invertebrates: a sesquicentennial history. Ophelia 32:1-48.

the power industry on the Hudson, a major user of river water and source of fish mortality, will be an important factor influencing fish abundance, including of the anadromous forms.

13 The Diadromous Fish Fauna of the Hudson River: Life Histories, Conservation Concerns, and Research Avenues

John R. Waldman abstract The Hudson River hosts almost a dozen diadromous fishes - species that migrate between marine and fresh waters. Only one, American eel, is catadromous (spawn at sea); the remainder are anadromous (spawn in fresh water). American shad, Atlantic sturgeon, and striped bass have been subjected to large, long-term, commercial fisheries; striped bass also support an intensive recreational fishery. Because of protection afforded the coastal migratory mixed stock of striped bass, the Hudson's population is high at this time. Among Hudson River finfish, only American shad have low enough body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to allow commercial harvests today, but this stock has shown a long-term decline. Because of late twentieth century commercial overfishing of the Hudson River Atlantic sturgeon stock and the depleted status of most of its other populations, this species is being conserved under a fishing moratorium that may extend to 2038. The river's other acipenserid, shortnose sturgeon, was one of the original taxa listed under the 1973 U.S. Endangered Species Act; there is evidence that its abundance has multiplied four-fold since then. Marine-migrating blueback herring have colonized the Mohawk River -thus extending their distribution and increasing their abundance in the system. Two cold-water fishes at the southern margin of their ranges have become apparently extinct (rainbow smelt) or have shown declines (Atlantic tomcod) that may be related to warming. Recent studies have increased knowledge of the Hudson's diadromous ichthyofauna, but many questions remain, particularly concerning the effects of non-native species and shifting community compositions. Opportunities exist to mitigate some population declines through habitat enhancement. The future of

0 0

Post a comment