Air and water temperatures wind speed and precipitation

Calculation of dry particle deposition, wet deposition, and gas absorptive fluxes of target organic chemicals to the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary requires knowledge of the air temperatures and wind speeds at the three sites surrounding the estuary (New Brunswick, Sandy Hook, Liberty Science Center), and the mean surface skin temperature of the water body. Figure 27.3 (upper panel) portrays the mean daily air temperatures for the

Figure 27.3. Meteorological parameters at the three sampling sites. Upper panel shows temperatures at Liberty Science Center, New Brunswick, and Sandy Hook as well as water surface skin temperatures in Raritan Bay measured by remote sensing. Lower panel shows wind speeds at Liberty Science Center, New Brunswick, and Sandy Hook.

Figure 27.3. Meteorological parameters at the three sampling sites. Upper panel shows temperatures at Liberty Science Center, New Brunswick, and Sandy Hook as well as water surface skin temperatures in Raritan Bay measured by remote sensing. Lower panel shows wind speeds at Liberty Science Center, New Brunswick, and Sandy Hook.

New Brunswick, Sandy Hook, and Liberty Science Center sites from October 1997 through June 2000. The winter mean daily temperatures ranged from approximately 0°C in the winter to 22-25°C in the summer. The mean daily surface skin temperature in the open estuary, determined by remote sensing in the IR band, followed the air temperature very closely as expected due to coupling of the air and water. The mean daily wind speeds at the Sandy Hook and Liberty Science Center sites on the estuary were significantly higher than at the land-locked New Brunswick site yielding conservative estimates of exchange at the latter. Typical daily mean wind speeds at New Brunswick varied from ~2-4 m s-1 whereas wind speeds at the other sites ranged from 2 to as much as 12 m s-1 depending on storm activity, season, and sea breezes.

Precipitation intensity or volumes were summed over the four seasons of winter (Dec-Feb), spring (Mar-May), summer (Jun-Aug), and fall (Sep-Nov). The mean annual precipitation (thirty-year average) for the estuary is ~1.1 m yr-1. Precipitation intensity over the study period ranged from

3,500

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Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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