The Hudson River hosts eight species of anadromous fishes (see Waldman, Chapter 13, this volume). Some of these species (Atlantic sturgeon, shortnose sturgeon, and American shad) are not usually seen in Hudson River tributaries. Today, only alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) out of all the anadromous species present in the Hudson River spends a significant part of its life cycle in tributary streams. Tributary spawning may be critical to the maintenance of this population. Historically, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and, possibly, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)were also much more common in tributaries, but their populations are now very low in the Hudson River.
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