Index

Acadian orogeny see geological history Acartia hudsonica seezooplankton, copepods Acartia tonsa see zooplankton, copepods Acipenser brevirostrum see shortnose sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus see Atlantic sturgeon Adirondacks, 317 aerosols, 82-83 alkylphenol ethoxylate metabolites, 394 alewife, 178-179,205, 429

alien species, 9 and bait release, 306 and ballast water, 306 and black carp, 307 and pet trade, 306 and shipping, 297 Asian shore crab, 304 Atlantic rangia, 303-304 black bass, 302

comparisons with other basins,

298-299 definition, 296 ecological and economic impacts, 304-305 eradication, 305, 306 future invaders, 305 intentional vs. unintentional introductions, 307 invasion in 19th century, 298 list of alien and native species, 297

management, 305-307 number of species in Hudson, 296

risk of impacts, 305 saline part of Hudson, 297 solid ship ballast versus agricultural sources, 297

time course of freshwater invasions, 296-297 vectors, 298-299, 306-307 water chestnut, 302 zebra mussel invasion see zebra mussels Alosa aestivalis see blueback herring Alosa mediocris see hickory shad Alosa pseudoharengus see alewife Alosa sapidissima see American shad American eel, 176, 211, 431, 432, 443

American shad, 176-178,429

fisheries trends, 195-196 Ampelisca abdita, 246, 249, 257,

258, 261 Ampelisca toxicity test, 448-449, 450

anadromous fish definition, 171 Anadromous Fish Conservation

Act, 192 Anchoa mitchilli see bay anchovy angling see fisheries angling and toxicity see human health Anguilla rostrata see American eel APEO

see alkylphenol ethoxylate metabolites Arthur Kill, 388, 443 Arthur Kill circulation, 36-37 Asian shore crab see alien species Atlantic rangia see alien species Atlantic salmon, 191

Atlantic sturgeon, 173-175, 330, 429

fisheries trends, 194-195 Atlantic tomcod, 180,429,431, 432, 433, 434, 452, 454 mixtures of contaminants,

454-455 tumors, 180 atmospheric deposition dry deposition, 401 gaseous absorptive deposition,

401-402 measuring sites, 400-401 physical factors, 402-404 processes, 398

wet and dry deposition, 399-400 wet deposition, 88-92,401

bacteria and chlorophyll a, 102 and zebra mussels, 102 carbon sources, 102-105 cell densities, 99-100 DOC and POC sources, 102-103 growth rate, 100-102 heterotrophic microganisms, 99 relation to terrestrial carbon sources, 104-105 secondary production, 101 spatial variation in production, 103-104 bacteria and zooplankton see zooplankton ballast water see alien species bass tournaments, 197 bay anchovy, 429 Benthic Mapping Program, 51 benthos, 8 and bioturbation, 274 and substratum type, 242 definition, 266

functional groups in Lower Bay Complex, 245, 253, 256

benthos (cont.) Lower Bay Complex species list, 247

role in ecosystem, 266 see Lower Bay Complex see tidal-freshwater benthos sieve size effect, 246 size classes, 267 tidal-freshwater Hudson see tidal-freshwater benthos water column interactions, 274 berillium-7, 386 Berry's Creek, 443 biological oxygen demand, 121,

338,340,341-342,344 biomarkers of cancer in fish,

451-452 black carp see alien species black sea bass, 431 blue crab, 164, 167, 268, 429, 444, 446

blueback herring, 179 bluefish, 429 BOD

see biological oxygen demand borers, reinvasion of New York

Harbor, 344 Bosmina, 218, 221, 222-223 box crab, 165

Bray-Curtis index, 245, 261 Brown bullhead lesions, 450

cadmium, 391, 444

bioaccumulation, 443 Calappa flammea see box crab Callinectes sapidus see blue crab cancer and PCB exposure, 451-452 carbon DOC and POC, 102 export, 273 Carcinus maenas, 304 cardinalflower, 285 CARP, see Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Project 210 Carson, Rachel, 325,417 catadromous fish definition, 171 Catostomus commersoni see white sucker cattail, 285, 444 Centropages see zooplankton, copepods Centropristis striata see black sea bass cesium-137, 281, 383-386, 388

channel axis deposit see Sedimentary features Chesapeake Bay Program, 327 Chione stutchburyi, 261 chlordane, 417,418 chlorination byproducts, 93-94 Cholorophyceae, 109 chromium, 391 Chrysophyceae, 109 Ciba-Geigy plant and metals, 391 circulation, 5-6 cladocera decline due to zebra mussels, 222

Clean Water Act, 123,134,320,

321,324,337,339 Clermont, 317 Clinton, DeWitt, 315 closed gentian, 285 Colvin, Verplanck, 13,317 combined sewer outfalls, 129, 345

Commencement Bay,

Washington, 361 common reed, 285

spread in marshes, 286, 287 Consolidated Edison, 324 Contaminant Assessment and Reduction Project, 326, 327-328 contaminants, 6 chronologies of input, 75-76,

387-392 FDA guidelines, 199 in blood of anglers, 421 long-term trends, 76-77 toxicity of organic contaminants to invertebrates, 445-449 toxicity of organic contaminants to vertebrates, 449-458 copper, 389-390 Corophium tuberculatum, 249 Coxsackie Creek, 210 crab larvae, 160 Crangon septemspinosa see shrimp, bay Cryptophyceae, 109 CSOs see combined sewer outfalls cunner, 431 Cyanobacteria, 109 CYP1A1 gene expression in Tomcod, 452-454 Cyprinus carpio see carp

DDT, 417, 418, 441 DDT and chlordane in sediments, 388

deforestation, 315, 317 Delaware and Hudson Canal, 315

Delaware River, 36l diadromous fish and climate change, l84 conservation of habitats,

182-183 definition, l?l ecological interactions,

183-184 diatoms, l09 dieldrin, 4l?, 4l8 dioxin, 4l?, 44l in sediments, 38?-388 discovery of the Hudson, l dissolved oxygen Arthur Kill, 343 East River, 343

Hudson River temporal trends,

34l-342, 344 New York Harbor, 34l-342 Dorosoma cepedianum see gizzard shad Dreissena polymorpha see zebra mussels drinking water chemistry, ?9-86 dry particle deposition see atmospheric deposition duckweeds, 285

Dyspanopeus sayi, l60, 161, 163

East River circulation, 35-36 endocrine disruptors, 394

fish, 45? environmental actions:

l960s-l990s, 320-323 environmental history, 315-319 environmental issues - Hudson

River, 316 environmental legislation, 32l environmental management see management equilibrium surface concept see Sedimentation Erie Canal, 315-31? Esox lucius see northern pike estuarine circulation, 28-29,30-31 salt front, 29 stratification, 29-30,31 Etheostoma olmstedi see Tessellated darter Eurytemora affinis see zooplankton, copepods eutrophication, 121,142 and nutrient excess, 121 models, 142 exotic species see alien species fallout, radioactive, 383 fecal coliform bacteria, 344-345 and rain events, 345

Federal Dam, Troy, 5 fiddler crabs, 165,445 fisheries, 8-9 and contaminants, 199-201 and petroleum, 191 angling, 190-191, 196-198 future trends, 201 history, 189-190 regulatory agencies, 192 water withdrawal, 198-199 fjord, 1

fjord morphology see watershed Foundry Cove, 6,391,441,443, 444

Fulton, Robert, 315-317 Fundulus diaphanus see killifish Fundulus heteroclitus see killifish gaseous absorptive deposition see atmospheric deposition Gemma gemma, 261 gene expression see CYP1A1 gene expression General Electric, 398 General Electric Fort Edward

Plant, 356 Gentiana andrewsii see closed gentian geological history, 14-20 Acadian orogeny, 16 Catskill delta, 16-17 Grenville orogeny, 15 Paleozoic, 15-18 Pleistocene glaciation, 18-20 post-glacial environment, 20 post-glacial geologic processes, 20-21 recession of ice sheet, 19-20 Proterozoic, 15 Taconic orogeny, 16 geological setting, 1-5 gizzard shad, 210 Glacial Lake Albany, 20 glaciation see geological history Gobiosoma bosc see naked goby golden shiner, 209 grass shrimp, 429, 445, 446 gribbles, 344

gross primary production, 108

habitat types, 6-7, 51-63 HackensackRiver, 388, 389, 441 Harbor Estuary Program, 326-327 HCH, 417

Hemigrapsus sanguineus see Asian shore crab

Henry Hudson, 315 heterotrophic microorganisms see bacteria hexachlorocyclohexane see HCH hickory shad, 178 Homarus americanus, 446 Housatonic River, 361 Hudson estuary features of saline portion, 145

Hudson Highlands State Park, 321

Hudson River Estuary Program, 326

Hudson River Foundation, 316, 324, 325 and research, 330 Hudson River Level B Study, 323, 324

Hudson River Valley Commission, 321

human health advisories, 422 and watershed management,

422-423 anglers health study, 420-422 children, 423 fish consumption, 414 pollutants of concern, 413

Ictalurus nebulosus see Brown bullhead Ilyanassa obsoleta, 257, 258 Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant, 324

Interstate Sanitation Commission, 319

invasive plant eradication, 238

invasive species see alien species Iona, 287 ionic chemistry inputs, 80-83

Jamaica Bay, 389,392

Kalamazoo River, 361

Kill van Kull, 392

Kill van Kull circulation, 36-37

killifish, 444, 455-456

lady crab, 164,165 largemouth bass, 208 larval migration, 158-159 and behavior, 159-163 and estuarine circulation, 160 estuarine plume, 160-164 Hudson River and New York Bight, 158

management implications, 166-168 ontogenetic changes, 163 plasticity, 165

recruitment to shore, 165-166 larval mortality, 157-158 lead, 391 lead-210, 281 lead-210 dating, 386 leeches in tidal-freshwater benthos, 268

Lemna minor see duckweeds Lepomis see sunfish lesions and cancer in Hudson

River Fish, 450-455 Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri, 444 Limnoria see gribbles Lobelia cardinalis see cardinalflower Lower Bay, 238, 242 Lower Bay Complex description, 242-243 hydrography, 242 Lower Bay Complex benthos annual changes, 257 anthropogenic disturbance, 243 benthic decline in 1973-1974,

258, 262 benthic habitat change,

259-260, 262 benthic recovery, 263 community structure, 246-255, 261

decadal changes, 257-259 diversity, 246

functional groups, 249, 254-255 geographic regimes, 249-254 list of benthic studies, 244 problems with analysis, 261 sample resemblance, 245 sampling methods, 244-245 seasonal changes, 255-257 Lythrum salicaria see purple loosestrife

MagnusonAct, 192 management agencies, 322 and scientific information gathering, 328-329 and scientific research, 330-331 definition, 313 history, 314

major concerns, 314-315 Mantel test, 246, 256, 259 marginal flat deposit see sedimentary features marsh crab, 167 marsh vegetation see tidal wetlands MDS

see multidimension scaling mercury, 391-392,441 accumulation in fish, 443,

445-449 chemistry, 419

environmental distribution, 419 exceeding water quality standards, 443 human exposure, 419 toxicity, 419-420 metallothioneins, 445 metal-rich granules, 445 metals, 392-393 atmospheric input, 389 bioaccumulation, 443, 444 in New York Harbor, 443 in sediments, 388-392, 443 sources, 443 toxicity, 444 trophic transfer, 445 water quality standards, 443 Metropolitan Sewerage

Commission, 318,337 microbial loop, 99 Microgadus tomcod see Atlantic tomcod Micropterus dolomieu see smallmouth bass Micropterus spp.

see alien species, black bass Mimulus alatus see winged monkeyflower mink, 355, 457 Morone americana see white perch Morone saxatilis see striped bass Moxostoma macrolepidotum see shorthead redhorse Mulinia lateralis, 258 multibeam bathymetry, 53-55 multibeam scanning sonar, 6 multidimensional scaling, non-metric, 245 mummichog see killifish Mussel Watch, 447 Mustela vison see mink Mya arenaria, 257,258,261,446 Mylopharyngodon piceus see black carp Mytilus edulis, 249

naked goby, 431,432 National Environmental Policy Act, 320

National Estuary Program, 326 NDPZP, 112 Nepthys incisa, 257 net primary production, 108 New Jersey Atmospheric

Deposition Study, 400 New Jersey Department of

Environmental Protection, 321

New York Bay Pollution Act, 318, 319

NewYorkBight, 158,164 New York Bight circulation, 37 New York City Department of

Environmental Protection, 321

New York Harbor, circulation, 34-35 dumping, 317 landfill, 318 navigation, 317,318 sewerage system, 317,318, 319-320 New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 321,349, 446-447 Newark Bay, 441,443 nitrogen, 290 nitrogen loading rate, 127 non-point sources see nutrient loading North River waste treatment plant, 343 northern pike, 210 Notemigonus cryoleucas see golden shiner Notropis hudsonius see Spottail shiner nutrient excess see eutrophication nutrient loading, 129-130 and GPP before human impacts, 131-133 and New York City, 128 and nitrogen, 131 and phosphorus, 130-131 and wastewater, 128-129 and watershed, 123 into estuary, 127-131 Mohawk and upper Hudson, 129

non-point sources, 129

Oithona see Zooplankton, copepods ordination methods, 245-246 organic carbon balance, 115-116 Osmerus mordax see rainbow smelt otter, 355

Ovalipes ocettatus see lady crab oxygen, dissolved historical trends, 133-135 pollution standards, 133 oysters, 190

PAHs, 362 and neoplasms, 450 atmospheric input, 407-410 comparison of localities, 409 deposition fluxes, 409 in sediments, 388 in stream invertebrates, 446-447 Palaemonetes, 268 Palaemonetes pugio see grass shrimp partially mixed estuary, 5 Passaic River, 441, 443

dioxin, 387 Passaic River Superfund site, 388 Passaic Valley Sewerage Commission, 319 PCBs, 325 and sediment interactions, 355 and striped bass, 199 atmospheric input, 404-407 bioaccumulation models,

373-374 carcinogenesis, 417 chemistry, 414-415 chronologies of input, 75-76 concentrations in fishes, 354 congeners, 370 discharge history to Hudson,

349-351 dredging problems, 362-364 effects on fish and wildlife,

353-355 environmental distribution, 415 extreme events and transport,

360-361 General Electric manufacturing plants, 368 harm to people, 352-353 highly chlorinated congeners, 359

Hudson compared with other rivers, 361-362 Hudson River superfund site, 349

human exposure, 416 human nervous system, 416 in mink, 457-458 in tree swallows, 458 levels in fish, 353 levels in invertebrates, 446-447 loads to Hudson, 368, 370-371 maternal and prenatal exposure, 416-417

model notation, 380-381 releases from General Electric, 356

remediation through dredging,

361-364 remediation, benefits, 361-362 residues in New York Harbor fishes, 415 Risk-based PCB advisory in

Great Lakes, 353 role of fish migration on bioaccumulation, 378-379 sediment chronologies, 387 sediment release, 358 sorption to phytoplankton, 379 striped bass, 449-450 Thompson Island Pool, 357-358 transport and fate model test,

374-376 transport models, 358-360,

371-373 white perch, 449 Perca flavescens see yellow perch pesticides, 414 pesticides, organochlorine chemistry, 417 environmental distribution,

417-418 human exposure, 418 toxicity, 418-419 Petromyzon marinus see sea lamprey phosphates in detergents, 131 phosphorus, 290 Phragmites australis see common reed phytoplankton biomass, 109-111 composition, 109 interannual differences net production, 112-114 relation to water discharge seasonal changes spatial variation in biomass, 110-111 Piermont marsh, 282, 287 piers compared to open water, 431 current disrepair, 429 effects on fish feeding, 434-435 effects on fish growth, 432-434 effects on shoreline, 429 habitat quality assessment,

430-431,436-437 history, 428-429 management, 436-437 prey availability, 435 relation to fish sensory systems, 432

responses of fishes, 431-435

Piles Creek, New Jersey, 445 pipefish, northern, 432 Pleistocene glaciation see geological history pollution and beach openings, 346 non-point sources, 414 point versus non-point, 341 polychlorinated biphenyls see PCBs polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons see PAHs Polydora ligni, 257, 258, 261 Pomatomus saltatrix see bluefish Port Authority of New York and

New Jersey, 318 potadromous fishes definition, 206 power plants and fish mortality, 184, 324 Storm King pump storage proposal, 324-325 primary productivity, 7-8, 140-141 14C technique, 108 and vertical mixing, 108 and water residence time, 123

and zebra mussels contributing organisms, 107 dissolved oxygen technique, 108

fresh water part of the Hudson,

107-117 from New York City gross primary production, 108 Hudson compared with other rivers, 114-115 in saline Hudson, 123-127 light limitation, 7 limiting nutrients, 109 macrophytes, 109 management implications, 117

models, 141,142-145 net primary production, 108 nutrients, 7-8 rate, 111-114 respiration, 113-114 primary treatment see sewage Pseudocalanus see zooplankton, copepods Pseudopleuronectes americanus see winter flounder pumped-storage hydroelectric, 94

Pure Waters Bond Act, 321 purple loosestrife, 285 Pyrrhophyceae, 109

Quassaic Creek, 209

rainbow smelt, 179-180, 206 Rangia cuneata see Atlantic rangia Raritan Bay, 388 Raritan Bay circulation, 36-37 Red Hook waste treatment plant, 343

R-EMAP Study, 447-448, 449 resistance to contaminants, 444-446 cadmium, 444 evolution, 445 fish,455-456 in killifish, 455 in tomcod, 455 invertebrates, 447-448, 449

mercury, 445-446 selection experiments, 445 uptake mechanisms, 445 worms, 444-445 Rhithropanopeus harrisii, 160,

161, 163 Ritaxis punctostriatus, 258 River and Harbor Act, 318 rock and mineral resources, 21-22

Rockefeller Foundation Hudson

River study, 321 Rondout Creek, 210

salinity structure, 5 salt front see estuarine circulation sand waves, 45 Sandy Hook Bay, 238, 242 SAV

see submerged aquatic vegetation Scenic Hudson Preservation

Conference vs. FPC Case, 324

Science Management Paradigm, 329

sea lamprey, 173

sea level rise and glaciation, secondary treatment see sewage sediment chronologies beryllium-7 technique, 66 cesium-137 technique, 67 intercalibration, 393-394 lead-210 technique, 66-67 radioactive methods, 65-67 thorium-234 technique, 66 sediment contaminant chronologies, 383-386 sediment deposition spatial heterogeneity, 386-387

sedimentary features anthropogenic deposits, 62-63 channel axis deposit, 60-61 channel bank deposit, 61-62 marginal flat deposit, 62 oyster beds, 62 sedimentation, 6 accumulation estimates from radionuclides, 67-68 and salinity, 39-40 and spring freshet, 69 and tides, 39 deposition, 44-45 equilibrium surface concept, 68 geological sources, 39-40 input, 40-41 marine sources, 41 spatial and temporal variation in accumulation, 69-75 suspended sediment, 6,41-44, 45

unsolved problems, 47-49 seismic bottom profiles, 56-57 Sesarma reticulatum see marsh crab sewage and nutrients, 346 and primary treatment, 340 and secondary treatment, 339,

340, 341 East River, 343 inputs, 336-337 nitrogen loads, 340 phosphorus loads, 340-341 raw sewage release, 343 treatment history, 337-338 untreated, 346 wastewater loads - 20th century, 338-340 sewage treatment, 123, 130 sewerage system see New York Harbor sharks, 191 shellfish beds and pollution, 345 ship worms, 344 shorthead redhorse, 210 shortnose sturgeon, 175-176,429 shrimp, sevenspine bay, 429 sidescan sonar, 55-56 Silent Spring see Carson, Rachel smallmouth bass, 207-208 South Cove, 444 Spio filicornis, 257 Spirodela polyrrhiza see duckweeds sports fisheries see fisheries, angling spottail shiner, 209 spotted hake, 431,432

St. Lawrence River, 361 Stizosedion vitreum see walleye Stockport flats, 283,287 stream chemistry, 83-88 Streblospio benedicti, 246,257,258 striped bass, 181-182,323,324, 429

and PCBs, 448-449, 450 decline from PCBs?, 450 fisheries trends, 192-194 PCB bioaccumulation model,

373, 376-379 zooplankton as food, 225-226 sub-bottom profiles see seismic bottom profiles submerged aquatic vegetation and nutrients, 234-235 and water quality, 230 as habitat, 235-238 before and after zebra mussels,

235-236 critical role, 230 distribution in Hudson, 231 effect on suspended sediments,

233-234 fish species, 237 fish use, 235-236, 238 food webs and metabolism,

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