Info

Level l

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

Habitat

(Distribution)

(Abundance)

(Feeding and Growth)

(Fish Production)

Under pier

N/A

Pier edge

++

++

++

N/A

Pile field

+ + +

+ + +

+ + +

N/A

Open water

+ + +

+ + +

+ + +

N/A

N/A indicates data not available.

well in pile fields, which are areas that are virtually identical in structure to piers themselves but lack the decking that reduce light levels in the water below. Finally, a species of fish that can utilize alternative prey detection mechanisms, the Atlantic tomcod, can grow under piers, albeit at reduced rates compared to other habitats. Considered collectively, these findings indicate that under-pier habitats are not utilized by many fish species because foraging is impeded by conditions of intense shading. The consequences of shading may not be solely restricted to piers, as other large objects casting substantial shadows may have similar effects. Such items could include, but are not limited to, permanently moored vessels, floating platforms, and large docks.

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