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Figure 3.5. Map of the Hudson estuary showing the location of the salt front (approximately 1 psu) during different discharge conditions (adapted from Abood 1974). Discharge of 100 m3/s typically occurs during dry summer months, whereas the typical freshet discharge is around 2,000 m3 /s. The highest observed discharge is slightly more than 4,000 m3 /s.

monitoring program by the U.S. Geological Survey that documents salinity at points between Hastings and Poughkeepsie.

Although the river flow is modest relative to the tides, it has a dramatic influence on the estuary by providing a density contrast with the oceanic water. Ocean water contains about 3 percent salt by weight (or 30 parts per thousand, referred to by

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