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oxygen concentration, 231 plant species, 231 primary production, 231-233 use of nutrients from overlying water, 235 sunfish, 443 Superfund sites, 414 suspended sediment see sedimentation Syngnathus fuscus see pipefish, northern System-Wide Eutrophication Model, 145-152

Tachycineta bicolor see Tree swallow Taconic orogeny see geological history tautog, 432, 433, 434 Tautoga onitis see tautog Tautogolabrus adspersus see cunner Tear of the Clouds, 1,24 Tear of the Clouds, Lake discovery, 9-10, 13

Temora see zooplankton, copepods Teredo see ship worms tesselated darter, 211 Thompson Island Dam, 356-357 thorium-234, 386 tidal swamps see tidal wetlands tidal wetlands in low salinity algae, 286

animal species list, 288 biomass, 286 diversity, 285-286 dredge spoils and railroad construction, 282-283 erosion and resuspension, 282 fauna, 288

geographic extent, 269, 279 history of marshes, 282-283 important future study areas, 291

microbial assemblages, 289 nutrient cycling, 289-290 organic matter and nutrients,

288-289 plant litter, decay and microbial growth, 289 plant species list, 284 porewaters and nutrients, 290 research needs, 292 role of tidal exchange, 280-281 sediment buildup, 281,297,298 sedimentation rates in tidal marshes, 281 sedimentation rates in tidal wetlands, 281 swamps, 285 tidal particle flux and sedimentation, 281-282 vegetation, 283-285 vegetation spatial-temporal patterns, 286-287 tidal-freshwater benthos and plankton, 274-275 and salinity, 270 and substratum type, 270 annelids, 268 biomass, 271 chironomid midges, 268 crustaceans, 268 factors in spatial variation,

269-271 history of studies, 266-267 in diet of fishes, 269,274,275, 279

in food web, 273-274 insects other than chironomids, 268 mollusks, 268 oligochaetes, 269

poor knowledge of temporal variation, 271 resemblance to regional assemblages, 269 suspension feeding effects, 272, 273

taxonomic composition, 271 unknown factors in abundance,

270-271 zebra mussel invasion see zebra mussels tidal-induced mixing, 34 tides, 5

tidal currents, origin in Hudson, 29

tides and sedimentation see sedimentation Tivoli Bays, 282,283,286

nutrient budget, 290-291 tomcod lesions and toxicity, 450-455 see Atlantic tomcod total suspended solids, 338, 340,

341-342 toxicity assessment, 436,441-443 genetics and evolution, 442 Hudson/Raritan sediments,

447-448 management implications,

458-459 tomcod see tomcod, lesions Trapa see water chestnut Trapa natans see water chestnut tree swallow, 458 tributaries access by fishes from Hudson, 212

anadromous fishes, 205-206 catadromous fishes, 206 dams, 213 description, 205 nutrient input, 290 potadromous fishes, 206, 207 resident fishes, 211-212 species list, 207 water quality, 213 TSS

see total suspended solids TTHMs, 94

tumors in fish see lesions turbidity maxima, 42-44,

45-47 Typha augustifolia see cattails typhoid epidemics, 337

U.S. Environmental Protection

Agency, 321, 349 Uca pugnax see fiddler crabs UPGMA, 245 Urophycis regia see spotted hake

Valisneria see water celery Vallisneria americana see water celery walleye, 210

wastewater effluent flow, 340 wastewater treatment plants maintenance, 346 water celery, 107,184,230,231, 234, 235-236, 238, 242 biomass of beds, 231 competition with water chestnut, 231 light limitation, 231 see Valisneria water chestnut, 107,209,231, 236, 238, 242 effect on oxygen, 302 water quality, 135-136 water quality trends see dissolved oxygen water residence time, 123 water supply DOC, 94

New York City, 92-93 watershed, 1,13-14 fjord morphology, 28 major sections, 24-29 population size, 123 watershed-water area ratios, 400 weathering, 91-92 Westway, 323, 324 wet deposition see atmospheric deposition white perch, 208 PCBs, 449

white sucker, 206-207 Whitman, Christine Todd, 351 winged monkeyflower, 285 winter flounder, 429, 432, 433, 434

yellow perch, 208-209

zebra mussels, 268 and bacteria, 102 and phytoplankton biomass, 111

and zooplankton, 222-223 effect on bottom habitat, 272 effect on dissolved oxygen, 271, 273

effect on plankton, 271 effect on trophic group of benthos, 271,272 effect on zoobenthos, 271-272 effects on Hudson, 301 feces and pseudofeces as nutrients, 235-236 invasion of Hudson, 271, 299-301 zinc, 390

zooplankton, 8,219 ciliates, 218

community composition,

218-219 copepods, 218

decline due to zebra mussels,

222-223 definition, 217 feeding on bacteria, 224 food web connections to fish,

224-226 mysids, 219 phytoplankton and zooplankton food sources,

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