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1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1988. (A summary of selected data on chemical contaminants in sediments collected during 1984-1987 at about 200 coastal and estuarine sites)

2 Based on data compiled by Bowen (1979).

1 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1988. (A summary of selected data on chemical contaminants in sediments collected during 1984-1987 at about 200 coastal and estuarine sites)

2 Based on data compiled by Bowen (1979).

(upstream of the harbor) had detectable 137 Cs and trace metal levels that were lower, but still significantly elevated above background. Old (preindus-trial) Hudson sediments had near-background levels of the metals, comparable to those reported for average shale. Detailed chronologies of these metals in sediments from the mainstem harbor (site 7; Fig. 26.1) and mid-tidal Hudson (site 6; Fig. 26.1) were reported in the late 1980s (Bopp and Simpson, 1989). A few years later, dated sediment cores from Jamaica Bay, a sewage-impacted coastal embayment, were used to derive chronologies for an expanded list of metals, including cadmium, chromium, and mercury, and for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (Bopp et al., 1993).

Recent efforts to extend and expand trace metal chronologies in Hudson sediments have been productive. The history of atmospheric trace metal inputs to the New York metropolitan area has been elucidated through analyses of sediment core samples from Central Park Lake, Manhattan (Chillrud et al., 1999). The development of sediment chronologies has allowed characterization of major trace metal sources to the Arthur Kill associated with smelting at a National Lead site (Chillrud, 1996) and to the Hackensack River from the Berry's Creek Superfund site (Goeller, 1989). In the Upper Hudson Basin, significant sources of zinc could be related to pulp and paper plant operations and other metals, including lead, chromium, and cadmium come from discharges associated with pigment manufacturing at a Hercules/Ciba-Geigy Plant (Fig. 26.1; Chillrud et al., 2004; also Zamek, 2002).

Consideration of a limited amount of data from the sampling sites in Figure 26.1 provides a useful basinwide perspective on trace metal contamination in Hudson sediments. The figures that follow list the background concentrations of the metal expected for uncontaminated sediments (based on data compiled by Bowen, 1979) and the probable effects level (PEL; Smith et al., 1996), a common regulatory benchmark developed for freshwater ecosystems. While the PEL is not directly applicable to the brackish and saline environment of the NY/NJ Harbor sites, it does provide a point of reference. No similar benchmark is currently available for marine systems. Concentrations in mid-1960s deposits (identified by the fallout 137Cspeak) and in the most recent sediments that we have analyzed (7Be bearing surficial samples) are reported at each site. A similar approach has been applied to chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination in Hudson Basin sediments (Bopp et al., 1998).

The copper data (Fig. 26.3A) illustrate a pattern common to all the metals. At every site, there is a significant decrease in levels between the mid-1960s

Figure 26.3. Levels of Cu and Zn in Hudson Basin sediment samples reported in parts per million on a dry weight basis. Upper numbers represent the concentrations in samples deposited between the mid 1980s and mid 1990s. The numbers in bold type are concentrations in mid 1960s samples. The probable effects level (PEL) is 197 ppm for Cu and 315 ppm forZn (Smith et al., 1996).

Figure 26.3. Levels of Cu and Zn in Hudson Basin sediment samples reported in parts per million on a dry weight basis. Upper numbers represent the concentrations in samples deposited between the mid 1980s and mid 1990s. The numbers in bold type are concentrations in mid 1960s samples. The probable effects level (PEL) is 197 ppm for Cu and 315 ppm forZn (Smith et al., 1996).

and the most recent samples, reflecting the success of regulatory efforts at controlling point-source inputs and improving wastewater treatment. At only two sites do the most recent levels exceed the PEL for Cu - the Arthur Kill (site 10; Fig. 26.1), one of the most contaminated waterways in the New York/New Jersey Harbor (Chillrud, 1996;Bopp etal. 1998), and Newtown Creek (site 8; Fig. 26.1), a tidal embayment that receives the discharge from one of the largest New York City wastewater treatment plants. From the mid-tidal Hudson (site 6; Fig. 26.1) upstream levels in the most recent samples are at or near background. The highest Cu levels in mid-1960s samples are found in the Arthur Kill and near Troy (site 4; Fig. 26.1). Much lower levels upstream of the Troy site suggest a significant local source.

Zinc levels in recent samples (Fig. 26.3B) exceed the PEL in the Upper Passaic (site 14; Fig. 26.1) and mid Hackensack (site 13; Fig. 26.1) Rivers as well as in the Arthur Kill and Newtown Creek. Mid-1960s levels exceeding 1,000 ppm are seen in the Arthur Kill and Upper Passaic River as well as at three sites in the Upper Hudson Basin. While zinc oxide was used at the Hercules/Ciba-Geigy pigment plant upstream of site 1 (Fig. 26.1), the high levels in the Batten Kill (site 2; Fig. 26.1) are upstream of a dam and cannot be related to this source. We suspect a pulp and paper plant source of zinc to the Batten Kill. Comparison of137 Cs and Zn profiles with depth in a Batten Kill core (Fig. 26.2A) clearly indicates that the major Zn inputs occurred in the 1950s and 1960s. Recent analysis of mid-1960s samples from the main stem of the Hudson upstream of the Hercules/Ciba-Geigy pigment plant also gave zinc levels of over 1,000 ppm (Zamek, 2002) suggesting a pulp and paper plant source further upstream on the Hudson.

Figure 26.4. Levels ofPb and Cd in Hudson Basin sediment samples. The PEL is 91 ppm forPb and 3.5 ppm for Cd (Smith et al., 1996). See Figure 26.3 caption for additional details.

The major Pb (Fig. 26.4A), Cd (Fig. 26.4B), and Cr (Fig. 26.5A) source to the main stem Upper Hudson sites appears to be the Hercules/Ciba-Geigy pigment plant (Rohmann, 1985; Eckenfelder Inc., 1991;Bopp et al., 1996; Chillrud, 1996; Chillrud et al., 2003; Chillrud et al., 2004). The mid-1960s Pb concentration at site 1 (1,560 ppm) was the highest at any Hudson site sampled. It is noteworthy that in 1991 deposition, the Pb level (69 ppm) was less than one-twentieth of the mid-1960s value, less than four times background, and below the PEL. Except for Jamaica Bay (site 9; Fig. 26.1), the recent samples from the New York/New Jersey Harbor area exceed the PEL. As expected, levels in mid-1960s samples were all significantly higher. The mid-1960s concentration at the Arthur Kill site, 398 ppm, is somewhat misleading. Samples at this site dating from the early twentieth century had lead levels up to 2,000 ppm, reflecting the smelting history at the nearby National Lead plant (Chillrud, 1996). The Cd data indicate the importance of the

Hercules/Ciba-Geigy source to the Upper Hudson sites. The lack of other significant Cd sources is indicated by the near-background levels at Upper Hudson tributary sites. More detailed data analysis suggests that Hercules/Ciba-Geigy discharges were the main source of Cd to sediments as far downstream as Kingston (site 6; Fig. 26.1; Chillrud, 1996; Chillrud et al., 2004). Thirty-five miles farther downstream, discharges from a battery manufacturing facility on Foundry Cove were an additional significant source of Cd to the lower Hudson (Bower et al., 1978; Knutson, Klerks, and Levinton, 1987). The data for Cr are much more limited. They are consistent with a Hercules/Ciba-Geigy source and significant inputs to the Hackensack River (site 13; Fig. 26.1) from the Berry's Creek Superfund site (Goeller, 1989).

Hg is a toxic metal of particular concern because of its propensity to bioaccumulate in the methylated form. Of all the contaminants monitored in fish of the Upper Hudson, Hg ranks second in

Figure 26.5. Levels of Cr and Hg in Hudson Basin sediment samples. The PEL is 90 ppm for Cr and 0.49 ppm for Hg (Smith et al., 1996). See Figure 26.3 caption for additional details.

significance, behind only PCBs (Sloan, 1999). At site 1 in the Upper Hudson, the high level of Hg in the mid-1960s sample (Fig. 26.5B) is consistent with the production of mercury-based pigments at the Hercules/Ciba-Geigy plant and reports of Hg contamination in soils at the plant site (Eckenfelder Inc., 1991). With the exception of the 1996 sample from Jamaica Bay all the New York/New Jersey Harbor samples exceeded the PEL. The mid-1960s samples provide evidence of major, but poorly characterized, historical sources of Hg, especially to the western harbor complex (Kroenke etal., 1998).

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