The purpose of this chapter is to describe how mathematical models may be applied to increase the understanding of primary production. The main points of this chapter include:

1. An overview of primary production in natural water systems;

2. The utility of mathematical models for quantifying the causality of primary production;

3. The importance of eutrophication for the management of nutrients and primary production;

4. The evolution of mathematical models of eutrophication from simple calculations to state-of-the-science complex frameworks whichcanbe applied to supportmanagement and regulatory decisions;

5. The complex interaction of the lower Hudson River Estuary with Long Island Sound and the NewYork Bight (requiring the analysis of primary production in the Hudson River Estuary on a systemwide basis); and

6. An illustration of the modeling of primary production in the Hudson-Sound-Bight system to address eutrophication in western Long Island Sound.

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