It 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

Figure 23.2. Trends of wastewater flow to the middle and lower Hudson River (combined) from ca. 1900-2000, including untreated flows, primary and secondary treatment flows, and total flows.

Protection Agency (EPA) invested $61.1 billion ($96.5 billion in 1995 dollars) during the period from 1970-95 under EPA's Construction Grants Program to build and upgrade the nation's municipal WTPs. Approximately $3.26 billion ($5.52 billion in 1995 dollars) has been allocated to municipalities of the middle and lower Hudson River (Tetra Tech and Stoddard, 2000; Stoddard et al., 2002). The next section quantifies the changes in loadings associated with these efforts.

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