P

' Cruger Island Tivoli South Bay

Westchester Co.

Manitou Marsh

Camp Smith Marsh

Croton Point utchess Co.

Figure 20.1. Map showing locations of Hudson River tidal wetland sites mentioned in the text.

to the tidal wetlands at Tivoli Bays on the Hudson River; ecological structure and function at Tivoli are similar to other Hudson River tidal marshes, acknowledging variation due to salinity and exposure to tidal energy in different parts of the river (see Mihocko et al., 2003).

Development and Types of Wetlands

Water control (by restricted openings in the railroads, sandbars, or other barriers) affects hydrology, sedimentation, vegetation, animal use, and biogeochemistry. Most organisms move between wetlands and estuary, or wetlands and uplands, actively or passively. Dissolved and suspended matter, plant propagules, drifting and swimming organisms, mobile higher animals, and pollutants move in and out of wetlands on tidal, daily, seasonal, or irregular schedules. After death, some of the plant production of the wetlands is exported to the estuary in the form of particulate and dissolved organic matter (collectively "detritus"). This makes the wetlands very "open" systems, and means that the biota and function of the wetlands are shaped to a significant degree by external influences, both natural and anthropogenic.

Table 20.1. Sediment deposition rates (cm • yr using radionuclide techniques (210Pb and 137Cs)

1) within Hudson River tidal wetlands as determined

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