Conclusion Deficiencies Of The Material Transformation System

The conclusions presented in this section follow lines drawn by Ayres over a decade ago (Ayres 1989a). Compared with the production system of the biosphere, which has evolved to a nearly perfect system for recycling materials, our industrial production system has three main deficiencies. Dependency on Non-renewable Resources From the three salient characteristics, described by Ayres (1989a), that mark the difference between the naturally evolved biosphere and its human-designed industrial...