Kalundborg As A Model The Kalundborg Complex Historical Evolution

A highly evolved industrial symbiosis is located in the seaside industrial town of Kalundborg, Denmark (Gertler and Ehrenfeld 1996). Some 18 physical linkages comprise much of the tangible aspect of industrial symbiosis in Kalundborg (see Figure 27.2). The six key local players in the network that has developed are Asnaes Power Station, SK Power's 1350-megawatt power plant a large oil refinery operated by Statoil A S Novo Nordisk Novozymes A S, a Danish pharmaceutical and a Danish biotechnology...

Conclusion Deficiencies Of The Material Transformation System

The conclusions presented in this section follow lines drawn by Ayres over a decade ago (Ayres 1989a). Compared with the production system of the biosphere, which has evolved to a nearly perfect system for recycling materials, our industrial production system has three main deficiencies. Dependency on Non-renewable Resources From the three salient characteristics, described by Ayres (1989a), that mark the difference between the naturally evolved biosphere and its human-designed industrial...