Among Firms Organized Virtually across a Broader Region Type

Given the high cost of moving and other critical variables that enter into decisions about corporate location, very few businesses will relocate solely to be part of an industrial symbiosis. In recognition of this, the model of Type 5 exchanges depends on virtual linkages rather than on co-location. While virtual eco-industrial parks are still place-based enterprises, Type 5 exchanges allow the benefits of industrial symbiosis to be expanded to encompass a regional economic community in which the potential for the identification of by-product exchanges is greatly increased owing simply to the number of firms that can be engaged. An additional attractive feature is the potential to include small outlying agricultural and other businesses, possibly by pipeline, as in Kalundborg, or by truck for those farther out. It could be argued that self-organized groups such as the network of scrap metal dealers, agglomerators and dismantlers who feed particular mills or subsystems such as auto-recycling could be considered as Type 5 virtual exchanges (Frosch et al. 1997).

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