Australian Industrial Ecology Outputs

Outputs are here defined as those materials flowing from the industrial system to the consumers and finally to the environment. Sources of outputs can be point sources, such as specific industrial plants, or diffuse sources - producing outputs from the dissipative use of materials (Ayres et al. 1987). The major outputs from Australian industry to the environment considered here are air, toxic and urban solid waste outputs. They are summarized for various years in Table 25.3.

Industrial ecology: an Australian case study Table 25.3 Waste generation in Australia

Waste type


Amount (1000 MT)

Hazardous waste

Early 1990s

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