As concern over dissipative uses of toxic materials has grown (for example, Ayres 1989a), so too has interest in the biocompatibility of materials. Biocompatibility has two dimensions: first, that the material is safe for humans and ecosystems in its intended use; and second, that upon disposal it biodegrades or otherwise becomes harmless. Biocompatible materials are being introduced slowly into the built environment, primarily through the efforts of innovative architects and engineers working on green buildings (Calmenson 1997). However, planners can encourage this trend, especially in the domains of site and transport planning, where innovative paving materials are becoming available.

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