Conclusion

Many different industrial ecology tools have been studied and applied in Japan, though they have not necessarily been reported internationally. Linkage among different tools within industrial ecology, integration of engineering tools and economic analysis and linkage between tools for microeconomic analysis and those for macroeconomic analysis should be further elaborated. Physical accounting for material inflows and outflows at any level can serve as a common basis. International exchange of experiences, as in the case of the MFA study, will contribute to further developments and improvements in industrial ecology methodologies and practices.

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