Conclusions

There is a growing body of evidence that remanufacturing is an economically viable method to support a closed-loop materials cycle. Firms face a number of significant challenges in designing supply chains with reverse materials flows and in planning and controlling remanufacturing operations. There are also a number of technical issues such as product design, and the optimal number of times a component or part may be remanu-factured, that desire consideration. The use of e-commerce as an enabling technology deserves close attention and documentation. Finally, there are many lessons available from commercially driven product returns that may provide valuable insights for the continuing development of industrial ecosystems.

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