At the meso level in IE, individual species become visible. Scavengers, recyclers, re-users and remanufacturers are important actors in many industrial ecosystems, and their ability to act depends to a large extent on governmental solid waste management policies. Planners influence solid waste management practices by virtue of their prominent roles in siting roads, landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, materials recovery facilities and other industrial land uses. Waste-processing and disposal sites often have LULU (locally undesirable land use) status, making them difficult to site, and thereby creating economies of scale. Single-use zoning laws may force scrap dealers and other small-time decomposers to locate far from their sources of scavengeable material, thus reducing their economic viability. In addition, the economic cost of waste collection and recycling is strongly influenced by the density and pattern of settlement. Nevertheless, planners play a relatively minor role relative to other governmental actors in solid waste management. More important are the municipal officials who supervise waste collection and recycling activities, and the higher levels of government that establish the rules of the game.
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