Kalundborg illustrates that there is enormous potential for environmental improvement through industrial symbiosis. Positive applications include increasing energy efficiency through co-generation and by-product re-use, recycling gray (used) water to achieve overall reduction in drawdowns, recovering solvents and re-using many, diverse residue streams that need not be rejected as wastes. Other non-material-based linkages, such as jointly planning transport networks and sharing office, information, or security services, also have potential for environmental improvement. Given these advantages, one might ask why more companies are not engaged in these types of projects.
Was this article helpful?